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2011 - International Studies Association Annual Conference "Global Governance: Political Authority in Transition" Words: 201 words || 
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1. Samuel, Lisa. "When Negotiating Trade Means Negotiating Difference: Ethical Engagements at the Margins of International Trade Negotiations" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association Annual Conference "Global Governance: Political Authority in Transition", Le Centre Sheraton Montreal Hotel, MONTREAL, QUEBEC, CANADA, Mar 16, 2011 <Not Available>. 2019-12-09 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p502624_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Small developing states are scheduled to be treated as equal players in the neoliberal trading system. But vulnerabilities associated with size, location, and governance capacity circumscribe the way in which these states can participate: They are not equal players – they are different. Debates rage as to whether the removal of special and differential treatment for these states at the urging of larger, more powerful states will benefit the former. In these debates, small states explicitly appeal to justice to advance their concerns.
Taking Commonwealth Caribbean states as representative of such states, this study asks: What do Commonwealth Caribbean trade negotiators mean when they appeal to justice? This study is significant as being the first effort to systematically unearth and analyze the views of small developing state trade negotiators as to their understandings of justice. It finds that these negotiators perceive such justice as being justice to difference because of the distinct characteristics of small developing states which combine to constrain their participation in the international trading system; based on this perception, they seek new rules and outcomes in the multilateral trade regime which are sensitive to such different characteristics, that is, recognition of particularity versus the universalism of neoliberal trade.

2005 - International Studies Association Pages: 30 pages || Words: 7799 words || 
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2. Hudson, Natalie., Boyer, Mark. and Brown, Scott. "Negotiation as a Constructivist Process: Perceptual Assumptions and Negotiator Choice in Simulated International Negotiations" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association, Hilton Hawaiian Village, Honolulu, Hawaii, Mar 05, 2005 <Not Available>. 2019-12-09 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p69833_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Effective negotiation strategies have long been a focus for scholars and practitioners alike. A negotiator can be assertive or passive, argumentative or collaborative, or employ other strategies in an attempt to secure their desired outcome. Some studies have suggested that the most effective techniques in negotiation include viewing the issue from the adversary's perspective, focusing on the problem versus personalities, seeking collaborative solutions versus compromise, and basing the discussions on objective criteria. In the real world of negotiation, however, individuals have limited information regarding effective negotiation styles, and thus it would rationally follow that their perceptions of what works - most often based on personal experience and assumptions - would determine the strategies they utilize. This raises the question of whether or not rational, self-interested individuals or negotiating teams employ what they perceive to be the most effective techniques to resolve a conflict. In other words, do their perceptions of effective negotiating match their actions? Furthermore, is such rationality, which is stereotypically more commonly associated with masculinity, more prevalent in male negotiators rather than female negotiators? Using data from the GlobalEd project at the University of Connecticut, this study investigates the link between perceptions and action in simulated international negotiations. This paper analyzes that data (coded from the content of their simulation messages) and matches that content with the negotiators' perceptions of what are effective negotiations strategies.

2010 - Theory vs. Policy? Connecting Scholars and Practitioners Words: 40 words || 
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3. Lenz, Hartmut. "Step-by-Step Negotiations Towards Cooperation: The Neglected Dimension of Time in Treaty Negotiations" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Theory vs. Policy? Connecting Scholars and Practitioners, New Orleans Hilton Riverside Hotel, The Loews New Orleans Hotel, New Orleans, LA, Feb 17, 2010 <Not Available>. 2019-12-09 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p414464_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Intergovernmental treaty negotiations are at the core of regional and global cooperation and define “the rules of the game” in cooperation. Nevertheless, treaties outcomes are not the “final” stage of the negotiation process, but as one step of many towar

2008 - ISA's 49th ANNUAL CONVENTION, BRIDGING MULTIPLE DIVIDES Pages: 24 pages || Words: 11155 words || 
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4. Daoudy, Marwa. "A Framework for Negotiation in Power Asymmetry: Syria and Turkey's Negotiations over the Euphrates and Tigris Waters" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ISA's 49th ANNUAL CONVENTION, BRIDGING MULTIPLE DIVIDES, Hilton San Francisco, SAN FRANCISCO, CA, USA, Mar 26, 2008 Online <PDF>. 2019-12-09 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p252694_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: The difficulties encountered with negotiating and sharing a common resource, like water, are well known. A conflict over water exists when an actor feels constrained in the realization of its national goals and objectives through the unilateral use of the resource by another actor. The author addresses water conflicts from the perspective of negotiation theories, by revealing the direct and indirect issues at stake and the coalition dynamics at work. In line with major theoretical debates in the field, the study aims to shed a new light on the ongoing debate on water, security and conflict, as well as power and negotiation. In order to evaluate past and prospective negotiations, a conceptual framework is developed, which identifies the actors’ main (bargaining) variables (e.g., power asymmetries, coalition dynamics, strategies) and interests (water security, territorial claims, economic development, environmental concerns) and suggests some of their inter-relations. The framework draws on negotiation analysis to show how it is that actors will tend to employ power strategies to improve short-term gains, rather than engage in cooperation toward long-term solutions, when a comprehensive settlement is not realized. Counter-strategies on the part of weaker States can prove to be effective when issue-linkage is applied in the negotiation process.

In order to understand the power puzzle, the framework is applied to the Euphrates and Tigris Basins. What is the weight of water-sharing in the power dynamics of the three key actors – Syria, Turkey and Iraq? What were the negotiation strategies of Syria and Iraq, downstream riparians on the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, towards their powerful upstream neighbor, Turkey. Despite its geographic, political and economic predominance, why has Turkey agreed to a minimal water allocation to Syria? Linkages between water, power and security variables are thus disentangled and the paper concludes that asymmetries of power can paradoxically favor cooperative dynamics over water between upstream and downstream riparian States.

2004 - International Studies Association Pages: 14 pages || Words: 6007 words || 
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5. Fowler, Michael. "Negotiating New Notions of International Negotiation and Conflict Resolution" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association, Le Centre Sheraton Hotel, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, Mar 17, 2004 <Not Available>. 2019-12-09 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p72268_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This paper will discuss the challenges in trying to instruct mid-career diplomats and other officials in negotiation, conflict management, and other practical skills at the Institute of Foreign Affairs in Vientiane, Laos and the Institute of International Relations in Hanoi, Vietnam. In addressing common problems, useful techniques, and learning experiences, the paper will ask: what are the major types of disputes that such officials are facing? What learning techniques best address these disputes? What types of approaches work, and fail to work? Why? How does one factor into one's teaching the age, experience, and language capabilities of the officials? How do the cultural and historical experiences of the officials help to shape what approaches might be most useful? Ultimately, the paper provides a framework for both instructing officials and preparing them to better carry out their professional duties.

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