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2004 - International Studies Association Pages: 34 pages || Words: 7757 words || 
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1. Bohara, Alok., Mitchell, Neil. and Nepal, Mani. "Opportunity, Democracy, and Political Violence: A Sub-national Analysis of Conflict in Nepal" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association, Le Centre Sheraton Hotel, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, Mar 17, 2004 <Not Available>. 2019-09-15 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p74153_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: An Opportunity Theory of State Violence: A Sub-national Analysis of Conflict in Nepal Over the last decade Nepal has experienced both a transition towards democracy and the rise of insurgency. A new constitution established a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, legalized political parties, and permitted competitive elections. The 1999 elections generally conformed to international standards. Yet during this democratization, a Maoist insurgency spread to involve most of the country by 2001. What explains the state's use of violence? How does it relate to the threat posed by the opposition? How does the violence spread? What role does democracy play? What is the role of the international system? The explanation advanced here emphasizes the strategic circumstances of both opposition and government. From the conflict scholars, we have ideas about the strategic conditions favoring insurgency, and from the human rights scholars we have ideas about how the government will respond as the insurgency escalates and international factors, specifically the post 9/11 war on terror, and domestic costs and restraints (democracy) are brought to bear. The empirical analysis draws on fresh time-series Nepalese district level data for the duration of the conflict and includes theoretically important measures of government and opposition killing, political participation by district, terrain influences on insurgency, and a 9/11 measure.

2007 - International Studies Association 48th Annual Convention Words: 148 words || 
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2. Bhattarai, Keshev. and Budd, Darlene. "What Does Geography have to do with Democracy? The Case of Nepal" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association 48th Annual Convention, Hilton Chicago, CHICAGO, IL, USA, Feb 28, 2007 <Not Available>. 2019-09-15 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p180436_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: This paper provides a geopolitical analysis of the current state of affairs in Nepal as well as an explanation of how Nepal's geographic location has prevented democracy from taking hold despite recent democracy demonstrations. According to Bruce Vaughn (2006) Nepal may be described as a "yam between two boulders." Situated between India and China, Nepal has sought to maintain friendly relations with both neighbors. The ongoing Maoist insurgency poses an exceptional challenge to the King and the recently reinstated Parliament. China and India have responded with varying levels of support and assistance to the Nepali government.This paper will explain the geopolitical challenges of Nepali relations with the the two emerging Asian superpowers and highlight events that have halted Nepal's democratization process. Based on interviews with Nepali government officials and public opinion surveys, this paper offers a three-pronged approach to facilitate Nepal's development and an increased level of democracy.

2007 - The Law and Society Association Words: 229 words || 
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3. Malagodi, Mara. "Debating Secularism in the Last Hindu Kingdom: Nepal’s Democratic Experience 1990-2006" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The Law and Society Association, TBA, Berlin, Germany, Jul 25, 2007 <Not Available>. 2019-09-15 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p178396_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: The present paper aims to investigate the debate over a secular constitutional establishment in Nepal following the overthrowing of the Panchayat regime and the restoration of democracy in 1990. The paper shall analyse the modalities, reasons and implications of the enduring definition of Nepal as a ‘Hindu kingdom’ in the democratic constitutional framework. It has been argued that the constitutional provisions referring to Hinduism were enshrined in the 1990 Constitution to protect the ‘traditions’ of the country, give historical continuity to its institutions, and to consequently grant legitimation to the political system established by the new Constitution. However, such provisions placed Hinduism at the core of the state-constructed Nepali identity. The emphasis on the unity of Nepalese people seemed to discard its inner religious and ethno-linguistic plurality. This fact raised the question of how representative such state-constructed identity was of the entire population.

Thus, after 1990, the relationship between Hinduism and the Nepalese state has come under fierce attack from the Janajati (ethno-linguistic minorities), the Maoists, leftist political parties and civil society. The constitutional provisions referring to Hinduism have been strongly contested, being perceived as the instrument endorsing and perpetuating forms of social, cultural and religious exclusion, discrimination and oppression. This paper aims to investigate the veracity of such claims in the light of the social implications of Nepal’s legal developments, interpretation and application of its legal rules.

2005 - The Midwest Political Science Association Words: 1 words || 
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4. "Political Instability in Nepal: Factionalism and Polarization Among Political Parties" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The Midwest Political Science Association, Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, Illinois, Apr 07, 2005 <Not Available>. 2019-09-15 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p86742_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed

2005 - The Midwest Political Science Association Pages: 38 pages || Words: 10158 words || 
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5. Kantha, Pramod. "Maoist Violence and Political Stalemate in Nepal: Looming Uncertainties" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The Midwest Political Science Association, Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, Illinois, Apr 07, 2005 <Not Available>. 2019-09-15 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p86913_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The paper will examine the trajectory that derailed Nepal's newly crafted democratic process and faced the country with a widespread Maoist insurgency that claim to be effectively controlling more than half of the country.

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