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2016 - ICA's 66th Annual Conference Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
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1. McMurria, John. "From Net Neutrality to Net Equality" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ICA's 66th Annual Conference, Hilton Fukuoka Sea Hawk, Fukuoka, Japan, Jun 09, 2016 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-06-25 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1102009_index.html>
Publication Type: Session Paper
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: I argue that the conceptual foundations for net neutrality thinking assume a race-neutrality that obfuscates the daily experiences of racial discrimination and the institutional dynamics of structural racism. I begin with an assessment of the race-neutral conceptual foundations of net neutrality thinking then discuss how Critical Race Theory (CRT) has challenged these race-neutral frameworks. Drawing from CRT I locate the ways in which legal and economic structures of discrimination have historically inhibited people of color from gaining access to employment, ownership and decision-making power in the media and telecommunications sectors. I conclude with thoughts on how media policy scholarship must challenge race-neutral thinking to develop conceptual foundations for supporting what advocacy groups representing people of color have called “net equality.”

2012 - Eighth Annual Congress of Qualitative Inquiry Words: 144 words || 
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2. Martinovic, Dragana. and Wiebe, Natasha. "The “Net Generation” or the “Net Culture”?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Eighth Annual Congress of Qualitative Inquiry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, May 16, 2012 <Not Available>. 2019-06-25 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p557930_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The global generation of youth who were born between 1982 and 2003 and who grew up with computers and the Internet (Berk, 2010) are called “N-Gen-ers” or “digital natives” (Prensky, 2001). These terms suggest that those who are older are “digital immigrants.” However, we observe common behaviours among those who belong to contemporary technological society, regardless of age, such as struggling with digital distraction—instant messaging or Internet surfing during class, texting while driving. We make the case that those who are technologically savvy have a markedly different system of thought and thus form a society (Nisbett et al., 2001) or cultural group that is defined by shared behaviours, traditions, values, and beliefs rather than age. In this interactive presentation, we look for evidence in both media and research that Net Culture extends geographies and generations, producing a space of ambivalence and possibilities (Bhabha, 1994).

2006 - International Communication Association Pages: 39 pages || Words: 6957 words || 
Info
3. Bente, Gary., Rüggenberg, Sabine., Krämer, Nicole., Fischer, Oliver. and Hoppe, Ulrich. "Avatar-Assisted Net-Working: Increasing Social Presence and Interpersonal Trust in Net-Based Collaborations" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, Dresden International Congress Centre, Dresden, Germany, Jun 16, 2006 Online <PDF>. 2019-06-25 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p92162_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: The paper addresses the psychological effects of avatars in task-oriented net-based interactions. In a comparative cross-media approach the study focuses on the question how the use of avatars can enhance social presence and interpersonal trust in net-based dyadic collaborations. Special attention is paid to measurements that combine subjective verbal reports and objective behavioral data. For the purpose of this study a special avatar platform (virtual communication environment, VCE) is combined with a shared collaborative workspace (“Cool Modes”). This setting enables an experimental variation of real time communication modes during net-based collaborations. The experimental conditions were: text chat, voice over IP (audio), web-cam conference (audio-video) and avatar-conference (audio and avatar) using two types of avatars (low fidelity: cartoon like androgynous figure; high fidelity: textured male or female character). Results yield a significant difference between text and all other communication modes, while there was no difference between audio, video and avatar systems in terms of social presence and interpersonal trust. Analyses of nonverbal behavior and visual attention revealed no significant differences between video and avatar conferencing modes. The data raise critical questions about the added value of avatar systems and the specific requirements those systems have to meet to prove superior to mere audio/video transmissions.

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