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2007 - International Studies Association 48th Annual Convention Pages: 28 pages || Words: 7400 words || 
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1. Bjereld, Ulf. and Möller, Ulrika. "Beyond Neutrality? Public Opinion and the Issue of Military Non-Alignment in three Post-Neutral EU Member States" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association 48th Annual Convention, Hilton Chicago, CHICAGO, IL, USA, Feb 28, 2007 <Not Available>. 2019-09-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p180474_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to analyze the public opinion on security policy issues in three post-neutral EU member states after the end of the Cold War. In spite of the changed security policy circumstances for Swedish foreign policy after the end of the Cold War, in spite of the EU membership and although that Swedish foreign policy decision makers no more use the term ?neutrality policy? as a label for Swedish foreign policy, neutrality and non-alignment still have a strong support in Swedish public opinion. The same pattern seems to exist among other EU military nonaligned member states, as Austria and Finland. How shall we understand and explain the strong public opinion support for neutrality and non-alignment among EU military nonaligned member states? By the use of historical institutionalism the following hypotheses are formulated and tested: a) there is a connection between whether a state?s neutrality after the World War II was enforced or voluntary, and public opinion on security policy issues after the end of the Cold War; b) there is a connection between whether a state?s neutrality after the World War II was formalized or not, and public opinion on security policy issues after the end of the Cold War. c) there is a connection between to which degree a state continue its policy of military non-alignment and the public opinion on security policy issues after the end of the Cold War; d) there is a connection between a state?s entrance to the EU and the public opinion on security policy issues.The material used in the study is opinion polls and policy documents concerning the states? official position on the issue of neutrality, relations with the Nato and a common European defense.Altogether, the answers on these questions will contribute to a better knowledge of the significance of EU membership on security policy choices and to the development of public opinion on security policy issues. The results will also indicate the usefulness of historical institutionalism as an explaining theory in international politics, and the conditions for building a common foreign- and security policy inside the European Union.

2016 - ICA's 66th Annual Conference Words: 326 words || 
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2. Ribeiro, Nelson. "Selling Neutrality to the Public: How the media were used to promote Salazar’s neutral dictatorship" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ICA's 66th Annual Conference, Hilton Fukuoka Sea Hawk, Fukuoka, Japan, <Not Available>. 2019-09-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1109330_index.html>
Publication Type: Session Paper
Abstract: Neutrality was a central concept in Portuguese politics during World War II, placed at the core of Salazar’s dictatorship that had been established in 1933. Right after the outbreak of the war the Head of Government announced the country’s neutral position without renouncing the Anglo-Portuguese alliance and economic trade with Germany. The concept and the terms of Portugal’s neutrality were widely explained in the media and presented as being the best option for a country that, notwithstanding its authoritarian regime, was said to be politically equidistant from the Allies and the Axis.

As the war evolved, reinforcing Portugal’s positioning as a neutral country was considered more important than ever in order to disseminate the idea that Salazar’s regime was immune to the ideological clashes taking place in the international arena. The media played a central role as it was called on to constantly remind the general public that the country was following a path that would lead to glory and prestige regardless of the outcome of the war. Radio, along with newspapers, took centre stage in this role. While the press was mostly read by the elites, the audio medium became the main news source for most of the populace throughout the war and it was, therefore, a central tool in the promotion of neutrality.

The paper will present the different strategies employed by the Portuguese dictatorship in order to ensure that both the press and broadcasting portrayed Portugal as a neutral country living a peaceful and flourishing period, contrasting with most of Europe that was facing war and devastation. While censorship and ownership control ensured the alignment of national media with the official governmental line, Salazar also managed on many occasions to interfere with the editorial line of foreign broadcasts that reached the country in the Portuguese language. In this regard, the case of the BBC was the most significant as it was the foreign station with the widest listenership in Portugal during the war.

2018 - 14th Annual International Congress of Qualitative Inquiry Words: 135 words || 
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3. McAnulty, Joseph. "Surveilled into Neutrality: Exploring Notions of Neutrality Among Social Studies Preservice Teachers" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 14th Annual International Congress of Qualitative Inquiry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, May 16, 2018 <Not Available>. 2019-09-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1370854_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: In this paper, explore notions of neutrality among social studies preservice teachers. Previous research indicates that many social studies teachers express a desire to maintain neutrality in the classroom, guarding against what they view as problematic biases (e.g.. Ross, 2000). Using data collected from interviews with six social studies preservice teachers, I explored their tendency to articulate desires to teach “both sides” or show “the other perspective.” Relying on Foucault’s notions of surveillance, I theorize that, despite limited experiences in the classroom, these preservice teachers’ articulated desires for neutrality are influenced by the anticipation that they will be under significant surveillance during their careers as teachers. My analysis focused on the ways their anticipation of surveillance interpellates these preservice teachers into discourses of neutrality that deny the inherently political act of teaching.

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