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2007 - AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CRIMINOLOGY Words: 228 words || 
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1. Della Giustina, Jo-Ann. "Domestic Violence Policy and Independent Women’s Movements: A Comparison of Nicaragua and Russia" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CRIMINOLOGY, Atlanta Marriott Marquis, Atlanta, Georgia, Nov 14, 2007 <Not Available>. 2019-06-16 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p188045_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: This paper compares the domestic violence policies of Nicaragua and Russia, both of which experienced socialist revolutions and are now experiencing political and economic transitions, which have led to high rates of unemployment, growing frustration, and increased social violence, including serious domestic violence. The Russian government has chosen to ignore its domestic violence problem whereas the Nicaraguan government is seeking ways to eradicate the abuse of women. My hypothesis contends that the difference in these approaches is due to a strong independent women's movement in Nicaragua, which is lacking in Russia. In my analysis, I discuss the existence of domestic violence as a consequence of the oppression of women and the need for a women's liberation movement to challenge the underlying social attitudes that support male aggression and perpetuate the unequal balance of power between men and women. Because abuse is a social problem, the approach a government takes to eradicating domestic violence is intertwined with the society's general attitude toward women. Consequently, class and gender must be considered together. This approach challenges the narrow Marxist economic theory that a socialist economy alone will end women's oppression, the legal rights theory that women's oppression will end when women have legal rights, and the bourgeois feminist theory that women's oppression will end when women are represented in the legislative bodies in substantial numbers.

2003 - American Sociological Association Words: 3 words || 
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2. Bayard de Volo, Lorraine. "Matriots and Madres Sufridas: Gendered Battles in Nicaragua's Contra War" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Atlanta Hilton Hotel, Atlanta, GA, Aug 16, 2003 <Not Available>. 2019-06-16 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p106065_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: (to be uploaded)

2003 - American Sociological Association Pages: 15 pages || Words: 7791 words || 
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3. Horton, Lynn. "“Constructing Conservative Identity: New Social Movement Theory and Peasant Mobilization in Nicaragua'" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Atlanta Hilton Hotel, Atlanta, GA, Aug 16, 2003 Online <.PDF>. 2019-06-16 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p107207_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Drawing on a series of interviews with Nicaraguan guerrilla combatants, I analyze the formation and consolidation of a conservative, counterrevolutionary peasant movement known as "the contras." I suggest that while new social movement theory is a valuable tool in analyzing the centrality of identity and culturally based claims in the contra uprising, this mobilization also highlights some of the potential limitations of new social movement theory as applied to Latin America. I contend that local elites, with their own distinct interests, were key actors in the formation and promotion of a a shared “peasant” identity within the contra movement and that distributive and cultural demands often mingled. In addition, the contra movement, while making strong claims for autonomy, engaged the state directly, and was further influenced by the dynamics of armed mobilization and patterns of economic and military power in rural Nicaragua, factors less frequently considered in new social movement theory.

2003 - American Sociological Association Words: 533 words || 
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4. Carty, Victoria. "Transnational Solidarity in the Garment Industry: A Comparative Analysis of Mexico, Guatemala and Nicaragua" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Atlanta Hilton Hotel, Atlanta, GA, Aug 16, 2003 <Not Available>. 2019-06-16 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p105945_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: For scholars and activists engaged in understanding and improving working conditions in developing countries, the new millennium presents a landscape that is different from the preceding decades in many important ways. During much of the post-war period, transnational corporations (TNCs) established production and assembly sites, particularly in Latin America and Asia. This process only accelerated in the past twenty-five years, with many manufacturing plants closing down in the United States and relocating to countries that offered cheap labor and fewer health and safety regulations.

Many states and governments benefited directly or indirectly, legally or illegally from the establishment of TNCs. Others have made attempts to regulate and legislate foreign capital for the purpose of benefiting local industries. Initiatives to improve both wages and working conditions were mainly the result of organized or unorganized workers. Predominantly, local states and governments engaged in the suppression of these efforts.

After the downfall of the Soviet Union, and the virtual nonexistence of viable socialist societies, the efforts to address inequities acquired special characteristics. On theoretical and practical levels, scholars and activists contemplate the co-existence of market economies with effective means to ensure adequate wage levels and working conditions for its workers. Looking at it from one perspective, the issue at hand is to subordinate the market to social needs and social justice. From the opposite perspective, the stated objectives are capitalist market economies “with a human face.” Somewhere in between these two views, the simple question is “can profits and corporate responsibility co-exist as a viable form of economic organization?” Another distinguishing feature of efforts to address inequities is that political and social participation and change has become geographically localized, while simultaneously linking itself to global networks.

This manuscript examines attempts to improve wages and working conditions in the garment industry in three countries: Mexico, Guatemala and Nicaragua. In the landscape of the new millennium, the capacity and relevance of states is still important, but, many would argue, far less compared to the greater part of the past 150 years. Instead, the institutions that wield the greatest economic influence over the world economy are supra-national and not subject to scrutiny and accountability to the average citizen.

However, this hegemony has become increasingly challenged by a coalition of different constituencies that include labor unions and activists, human rights organizations, and corporate responsibility monitors. As is the case with the most important global capitalist institutions, the organization and functioning of this coalition cuts across geographical boundaries. Links between activist groups in developed countries with labor and community groups in developing countries have played an integral role in the mobilization effort.

The research in this manuscript shows that Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), comprised primarily of a cross-national network of solidarity that links grass roots organizers in export processing zones with students, consumer awareness groups, and independent monitoring efforts, has achieved the greatest success in pressuring brand-name retailers, local manufacturers, and local authorities to improve wages and working conditions. These NGOs have proven far more effective than alternative “top-down” mechanisms such as company-contracted monitors, and far more effective than government sponsored and sanctioned initiatives such as NAFTA.

2005 - International Studies Association Words: 97 words || 
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5. "Truth and Central American Peacebuilding: El Salvador and Nicaragua" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association, Hilton Hawaiian Village, Honolulu, Hawaii, Mar 05, 2005 <Not Available>. 2019-06-16 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p71730_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The goal of this paper is to examine the longer term effects of the Salvadoran Commission on the Truth. To do so, it will compare El Salvador's democratization process with that of Nicaragua, a country that shared a UN-sponsored peace process, but did not utilize a truth commission. I will do this by examining three broad areas: the development of an environment of respect for human rights; institutional reforms that facilitate greater accountability and respect for the rule of law; and the establishment of interpersonal trust and trust in institutions associated with repression in the old order.

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