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Showing 1 through 4 of 4 records.
2007 - Association for the Study of African American Life and History Words: 176 words || 
1. Khalifa, Muhammad. "Education, Community and Resilience: Models from the Nation of Islam (NOI)" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for the Study of African American Life and History, Atlanta Hilton, Charlotte, NC, <Not Available>. 2020-02-29 <>
Publication Type: Invited Paper
Abstract: This paper describes social and educational models as understood through frameworks of resilience. In contrast to the analytical approaches that many scholars have taken at addressing social ills, this research first delineates notions of resilience through looking at successful models of education and social programs in Blackamerican history. Blackamericans have routinely defied the challenges that threatened their progress and mobility. The contributions that the NOI made toward this culture of resilience are the focus of this paper. We shall first look at models of educational and social resilience. By this, we consider how marginalized and subjugated Blackamericans created schools and community organizations from within themselves and their own communities. Second, we describe how the NOI, through their stark criticism and rejection of white supremacy, developed their own educational and social resilience. Here we describe social programs and the educational institutions that the NOI themselves developed. Lastly, we briefly look at the relevance of their current approaches and the implications of their earlier programs in the context of the modern Blackamerican community.

2015 - ASALH Centennial Annual Meeting and Conference Words: 71 words || 
2. Muhammad, Baiyina. "Finding My Grandmother, Finding Myself: NOI Pioneer, Mable Carrie Foreman (1908-1980)" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ASALH Centennial Annual Meeting and Conference, Sheraton Atlanta Hotel, Atlanta, GA, <Not Available>. 2020-02-29 <>
Publication Type: Abstract
Abstract: Mable Carrie Foreman was widowed at age 49 and raised six of her seven children as a single parent. Unlike many Black women coming of age in the rural Jim Crow South, Mable chose the "Nation" and not the "Church" to help her find solace. The NOI's message of God's concern for the liberation of Black people appealed to her and so many other women seeking empowerment in America.

2010 - 95th Annual Convention Words: 179 words || 
3. Crawford, Malachi. "Neo-Houstonian Studies: Edward W. Jacko, the NOI and the Struggle for Afro-Muslim Civil Liberties" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 95th Annual Convention, Raleigh Convention Center, Raleigh, North Carolina, Sep 29, 2010 <Not Available>. 2020-02-29 <>
Publication Type: Individual Paper
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This paper explores the complexity of Charles H. Houston’s vision, strategy, and legacy as a legal scholar by examining his direct and indirect influence on the Nation of Islam’s legal struggle to defend the civil liberties of its members. By 1940, Houston began to alter his objectives at Howard University’s School of Law to meet the evolving legal needs of African Americans, reprioritizing the discussion of civil liberties such as freedom of religion within his course on civil rights. Whereas access to professionally competent and willing legal representation had eluded the Nation of Islam prior to this development, the emergence and retention of perceptively trained lawyers such as Edward W. Jacko, Jr., a former student in Houston’s revamped civil rights course, allowed the Nation of Islam to defend the religious beliefs of its members from a position of power. Nowhere was this new trajectory of Houston’s work more evident than in the legal drama surrounding NOI member Muhammad Ali, whose conscientious objection to serving in the U.S. military was initially contested by Charles H. Houston stalwart—Thurgood Marshall.

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