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2018 - ICA's 68th Annual Conference Words: 347 words || 
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1. Hartmann, Maren. "When the mobile meets the mobile: The normative framework of (mobile) time: Chrono-normativity, power-chronography and mobilities" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ICA's 68th Annual Conference, Hilton Prague, Prague, Czech Republic, <Not Available>. 2019-12-13 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1360110_index.html>
Publication Type: Session Paper
Abstract: This conceptual presentation will reflect on the question of time as it plays out differently in different social contexts of mobility. It thereby brings the mobile (person) closer together with the mobile (technology), while also regarding the mobile (content), asking whether time is mobile, too. To address this question, I will first introduce two existing concepts that problematize power and norms implied in and enacted through time and temporalities. In a second step, I will ‘mix’ mobilities into this already complex theoretical matrix, while a third and final part will serve to add empirical material from an ongoing study on mobile media and time to this mixture. The aim is to understand, both theoretically and empirically, what the possible implications of such mixtures might look like.

The first of the two concepts used is Freeman’s “chrono-normativity”, i.e. “the use of time to organize individual human bodies toward maximum productivity” (Freeman, 2011:3). Freeman herself re-examines in her much-discussed book ‘Time Binds’ cultural histories with a queer lens of re-appropriation. This re-reading of normativity in relation to time will be subsequently re-appropriated. The second concept is Sharma’s notion of power-chronography, an extension of Massey’s “power-geometry,” which underlines the relational nature of time. Sharma focuses on the question of work and time and asks “how different time sensibilities are produced“ (Sharma, 2014: 15). Both concepts use ideas such as the pressure of productivity, but focus empirically on rather different examples. While they both address the dependencies that dominate and the ways they play out different in different contexts, times, etc., Freeman is concerned with resistance, while Sharma shows the intricate net of dependencies.

My own use of these terms is a recontextualisation to double the normative power framework of time and temporalities. The challenge is to further relate this to mobilities and mobile media, especially in terms of the question of socialities. This mixture will be used to critically re-read our research outcomes from an ongoing project on mobile media and time. The time-and-media-biographical interviews will be analysed in terms of the newly developed framework of mobile socialities.

2016 - ICA's 66th Annual Conference Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
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2. Yang, Bo. "Understanding the Normative Mechanisms in the Theory of Normative Social Behavior in College Drinking: Considering the Role of Close vs. Distal Peer Injunctive Norms and Interdependent Self-Construal" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ICA's 66th Annual Conference, Hilton Fukuoka Sea Hawk, Fukuoka, Japan, Jun 09, 2016 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-12-13 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1107224_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This study examined the role of close vs. distal peer injunctive norms in the influence of descriptive norms on college students’ alcohol consumption and intentions to consume alcohol and the role of interdependent self-construal in these normative mechanisms. Results of a cross-sectional study conducted among U.S. college students (N = 581) found that close peer injunctive norms other than distal peer injunctive norms positively influenced the relation between descriptive norms and college students’ alcohol consumption. Greater interdependent self-construal was associated with stronger relation between descriptive norms and college students’ alcohol consumption. Interdependent self-construal further moderated the association between close peer injunctive norms and the impact of descriptive norms on college students’ alcohol consumption and intentions to consume alcohol. However, the direction of the three-way interactions was inconsistent with the hypotheses. Implications of the findings for social norms research and interventions were discussed.

2017 - APSA Annual Meeting & Exhibition Pages: unavailable || Words: 22390 words || 
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3. Stevens, Simon. "What is Legitimate to Study? In Pursuit of the 'Normative' in Normative Theory" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the APSA Annual Meeting & Exhibition, TBA, San Francisco, CA, Aug 31, 2017 <Not Available>. 2019-12-13 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1247994_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: When both academic critique and funding criteria essentially say to political theory, ‘what is the point?’, anxiety creeps into the heart of every normative theorist and agonising self-reflection ensues; the study of the political without advisory comment and application may not seem a legitimate use of public finances, where demands to ‘make better use’ of research are common (Council 2016). Thus our response appears urgent: not just for the standing of the subject, but for its very survival, for the continuation of PhD funding (in a UK context at least) relies upon the quality of the reply.

The problem is, the replies do not merely conflict, they rest upon fundamentally opposed views of what the subject actually is. Political philosophy has an intrinsic value, one might say, and if you want impact, then we actually need to be free of its demands, for the insights of theorising rely upon this freedom to reflect. ‘Division of labour’ (Waldron, 1995, p. 167) is our watchword here, where we safely withdraw from the nitty gritty of practical application. Alternatively, we could be sympathetic to what is essentially a realist attack veiled within the funding criteria, and claim that the ‘normative’ in normative theory is there for a reason. Regardless of the different views such retorts rest upon, both are vulnerable to the charge of elitism: either an ‘introverted elitism’ in which academics talk to academics about what should be done but is not, or an ‘extroverted’ version where we step up to the steeple and presume to ethically instruct individuals and government, risking the move from scholar to figure of moral authority.

This paper prepares the case for normative theory in the context of these academic criticisms and funding criteria by not shying away from the idea of a ‘prescriptive’ role with impact (Waldron, What Plato Would Allow, 1995, p. 161), but neither basing it upon a moral authority per se, or neglecting political philosophy’s fundamental commitment to reflection. To achieve this, I propose that normative theory be considered simply as a ‘capacity to imagine’ pushed to the demands required of an academic discipline. When perceived of in this way I claim that it can act prescriptively, for importantly, in contrast to current methods, a normative theory based on this ‘capacity to imagine’ does not assume conceptual security on which a strong moral authority would rest, thus also inviting conceptual analysis into the prescription. If a moral expert of sorts is to exist then, at the very least she is under constant antagonism and scrutiny.

For example, instead of emphasising the plight of the homeless with the abstract principle of negative freedom, I argue that we might instead investigate the condition of homelessness to subsequently discuss what is lacking, and in that lack, try to reach our ideal. In this way, we do not apply an external moral value safe in the presupposition of our principle, but in fact allow our homelessness narrative to create it. Rather than saying ‘this is what we should do, and here’s what happens when we do not’, this method says ‘here is an issue, why do we perceive of it as an issue, what should we do and what values would our proposed actions hinge upon?’ Thus, in essence, I turn to an unlikely saviour in the form of a Nietzschean style of genealogy within a normative approach, where the principle is not the starting point that we apply to a specific problem, but the problem is our point of origin, which leads to ideal theorising alongside conceptual analysis. Hence, a subtle, simplistic and fairly obvious way of viewing the subject can have surprising consequences in terms of methodological approaches to it, and so in this paper I effectively show how the questions and pressures of legitimacy lead us to an alternative way of normative theory suited to step up to that challenge.

2011 - International Communication Association Pages: unavailable || Words: 9032 words || 
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4. Lapinski, Maria., Anderson, Jenn., Shugart, Alicia., Fristoe, Chelsea. and Todd, Ewen. "Normative Influence on Hand Washing in Childcare Centers: Testing the Theory of Normative Social Behavior" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, TBA, Boston, MA, May 25, 2011 Online <PDF>. 2019-12-13 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p488092_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The theory of normative social behavior (TNSB, Lapinski & Rimal, 2005) provides a framework for testing the role of normative influences in hand washing behaviors among child care workers. A cross-sectional survey of child care workers in 21 centers indicates that outcome expectations and group identity increase the strength of the relationship between descriptive norms and hand washing behavior. Injunctive norms also moderate the effect of descriptive norms on hand washing behavior such that when strong injunctive norms are reported, descriptive norms are positively related to hand washing, but when weak injunctive norms are reported, descriptive norms are negatively related to hand washing. The findings suggest that communication interventions in child care centers can focus on strengthening injunctive norms in order to increase hand washing behaviors in child care centers. The findings also suggest that the theory of normative social behavior can be used in organizational contexts.

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