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2004 - International Communication Association Pages: 29 pages || Words: 7563 words || 
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1. Geana, Mugur. "The Online Rush for Novelty: Exploring the Profile of a Virtual Innovator" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, New Orleans Sheraton, New Orleans, LA, May 27, 2004 Online <.PDF>. 2019-09-18 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p112710_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Taking advantage of a unique moment in the evolution of digital cameras, the current research examines communication dynamics and influence of communication patterns on diffusion of innovation in the particular setting of an online professional message board, the information-exchange interface of a heterogeneous international community of amateur photographers. Findings suggest that earlier adopters of innovation in virtual communities have the same general characteristics as those identified by previous researchers in real communities and that a positive correlation exists between the online interaction and innovation adoption. The profile of a “virtual” innovator is constructed based on research data and characteristics of online communities regarding diffusion of innovation communication are discussed.

2006 - XVth Biennial International Conference on Infant Studies Words: 536 words || 
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2. Mak, Benise. "One-year-olds' preference for same-age over adult faces: Novelty effect?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the XVth Biennial International Conference on Infant Studies, Westin Miyako, Kyoto, Japan, Jun 19, 2006 <Not Available>. 2019-09-18 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p94638_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Poster
Abstract: Background & Aims: A recent study (Mak, 2004) shows that 12-16 months old infants prefer faces of same age peers over adult faces. However, some might argue that it is due to novelty effects. One-year-olds tend to have more contacts with adults than with same age peers. Infants attend more to same age faces simply because of the faces are new to them. To further examine this contact effect, two groups of infants were recruited in the present study. One came from day-care centres where infants have more experience with same age peers, and infants in another group were reared at home with no sibling around. I expected that results replicated those in Mak (2004). Babies in both groups would look more at their same age faces than at adult as well as young child faces, whereas those in Day-Care group tend to smile and vocalize more at their same age peers than those in Home group as infants with more peer experience compared to less experience have been found to be more likely to approach a same-age stranger and to show more complex social behaviors (Mueller & Brenner, 1977; Vandell et al., 1981).

Method: 30 healthy and full-term infants aged 12-16 months old participated. A preferential looking test was used (Bahrick, 1995). Infants were arranged to sit on an age-appropriate chair, in front of two color computer monitors located 1 meter away. They were then presented with six pairs of color static photos (two infant/child pairs; two infant/adult pairs; two child/adult pairs, and one of males; one of females), one pair at a time for 15s. The presentation orders of left-right position and of the six pairs of photos were counterbalanced across participants.

Key Results: Data showed that infants in both groups looked longer at same-age faces than at adult and child faces and to attend more to child faces than those of adult without the presence of same-age peers. However, babies with more peer experience were more likely to smile and vocalize to both same-age and child faces than those with less peer experience.

Discussion & Implications: Findings provide support my hypotheses: one-year-olds prefer same-age peers and young children over adults. Why? To babies, adults should be more important than peers. Adults are more capable of providing supports for their survival, and they are “experts” and more able to teach them skills to solve problems, to explore the environment and to interact with other people. Even so, infants are captivated by peers. Their special interest in peers should serve some purposes in early development. Both Piaget (1985) and Vygotsky (1978) theorized that peer and sibling experience is imperative for children to acquire knowledge and their cognitive growths. A study by Azmitia and Hesser (1993) even shows that siblings in some instances are more important than peers. If this is true, children who are the onlies in the family may not able to benefit from sibling interactions. Since the percentage of one-child family has increased dramatically over the past few decades in some countries such as China, more is needed to be done.

2008 - North American Association For Environmental Education Words: 198 words || 
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3. Liddicoat, Kendra. and Krasny, Marianne. "Novelty in Outdoor Environmental Education" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the North American Association For Environmental Education, Century II Convention Center, Wichita, Kansas, Oct 13, 2008 <Not Available>. 2019-09-18 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p281567_index.html>
Publication Type: Research Symposium Poster
Abstract: Although the balance of novel and familiar components in an environmental education experience can significantly influence its effectiveness, the concept of novelty is rarely discussed in the environmental education literature. Research in other areas of education and psychology has indicated that novelty can increase episodic memory, encourage new perspectives and actions, and enhance the level of challenge for increased personal engagement. Conversely, familiarity and repetition of experiences can improve the formation of semantic memories, enhance overall understanding, support learning by providing a feeling of personal safety, and increase students’ ability to apply what they have learned.
Based on over 100 retrospective interviews with past participants in residential outdoor environmental education programs for youth, we are exploring the role novelty has played in enhancing memory and impact. Study participants came to the programs with varying levels of exposure to the outdoors, attended programs in remote, rural, and urban areas, and reflected on their experience between one and 40 years later. Considering these distinct case studies through the shared lens of novelty provides a new theoretical perspective and suggests ways in which educators we can maximize program effectiveness by matching past, current, and future experiences.

2015 - SRCD Biennial Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
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4. Koulaguina, Elena., Culbertson, Jennifer., Gonzalez-Gomez, Nayeli., Legendre, Geraldine. and Nazzi, Thierry. "Interpreting early preferences: Familiarity vs. novelty effects in the acquisition of Subject-Verb agreement" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the SRCD Biennial Meeting, Pennsylvania Convention Center and the Philadelphia Marriott Downtown Hotel, Philadelphia, PA, Mar 19, 2015 <Not Available>. 2019-09-18 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p962138_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Poster
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Knowledge of subject-verb agreement involves both a purely phonological, surface representation of the dependency, and a more sophisticated representation of abstract morphological features. In principle these could be acquired simultaneously or sequentially—with phonological sensitivity preceding abstract morphological analysis. In this paper, we present evidence that French-learning infants’ knowledge of subject-verb agreement proceeds sequentially, resulting in changing patterns of behavior in listening-time tasks testing their ability to distinguish grammatical from ungrammatical sentences.

Using the Headturn Preference Procedure, we tested 14-, 15-, 18-, 21-, 22- and 24-month-olds’ sensitivity to number agreement in the 3rd person as marked by the dependency between a determiner ([lə] or [le]) and a linking consonant ([l] or [z]), as illustrated in (1–2). A set of 12 frequent vowel-initial verbs was used. The stimuli consisted of 4 randomly presented lists of 6 sentences each: 2 grammatical lists (1 singular, 1 plural) and 2 ungrammatical lists (1 singular subjects/plural verbs, 1 plural subjects/singular verbs). For each child, 6 verbs were presented in a grammatical set and an ungrammatical set with singular DP subjects, while the other 6 verbs were presented in a grammatical and an ungrammatical set with plural DP subjects. The 4 lists were presented twice in two consecutive blocks.

(1) Le [lə] garçon il arrive [ilariv] ‘The boy.SG arrives.SG’
(2) Les [le] garçons ils arrivent [izariv] ‘The boy.PL arrive.PL’

Results revealed significant preferences at almost all ages tested, but the direction of these preferences moved between familiarity (longer listening to grammatical stimuli) and novelty (longer listening to ungrammatical stimuli). Previous research has suggested that familiarity effects are typical when representations are still forming, while novelty effects are characteristic of more robust knowledge (Houston-Price & Nakai, 2004; Gerken, 2009). We therefore argue that the changes in preference we find reflect children’s developing representations of subject-verb agreement and how robust they are at a given age.

At the earliest age tested, 14-month-olds showed a familiarity preference (N=18, t(17)=3.45, p =.003), while both 15- (N=20, t(19)=–2.25, p=.036) and 18-month-olds (N=20, t(19)=–2.37, p=.029) showed a novelty preference. We interpret this as the first phase of development; infants have begun to acquire the surface-based phonological dependency, e.g., between [lə] and [il] or [le] and [iz]. By 15 months, this knowledge is robust enough to manifest as a novelty preference.

At around 21 months, a transition occurs, and the morphological representation of the agreement dependency begins to develop. Here three groups can be distinguished: 21-month-old infants show a familiarity preference (N=15, t(14)=2.59, p=.022), 22-month-olds show no significant preference (N=15, t(14)=.01, p=.996), but by 24 months a novelty preference emerges (N=20, t(19)=–2.3, p=.033). We interpret this as the second phase of development; infants begin to acquire and solidify a more abstract representation of subject-verb agreement involving analysis of the relevant morphological features (here, singular vs. plural). We discuss independent evidence for these stages from other studies of segmentation, noun number comprehension, and subject-verb agreement comprehension in French-acquiring children (Babineau & Shi, 2011; Feigenson, p.c.; Legendre et al., 2010).

2015 - SRCD Biennial Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
Info
5. Thompson, Donna. and Thompson, Burt. "Novelty Preferences as Visual Exploration" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the SRCD Biennial Meeting, Pennsylvania Convention Center and the Philadelphia Marriott Downtown Hotel, Philadelphia, PA, Mar 19, 2015 <Not Available>. 2019-09-18 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p960591_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Poster
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Infant novelty preferences are used to assess infant perceptual and cognitive skills. To measure stability of novelty preferences across trials, infants are shown a series of novel stimuli paired with one familiar stimulus that repeats each trial (Fantz, 1964). The percentage of time infants look at the novel stimulus on each trial (percent novel) is used to identify novelty runs. In the traditional view (e.g., Hunter & Ames, 1982), as infants develop a memory for the familiar stimulus, interest in it declines and percent novel increases. A preference for novel stimuli across several trials (a novelty run) has been used to measure habituation rate (Roder et al., 2000; Rose et al., 2002). We ask whether novelty runs can appear without carry-over from trial to trial, i.e., without memory. If infants are gradually building a memory for the familiar stimulus, then we should see more novelty runs when data are analyzed in the order in which trials were presented. Fewer novelty runs should appear with random shuffling of the trials.

Method
To test this idea, 18 infants were tested three times at 3-4 week intervals (mean age at Visit 1 = 13.3 weeks). Infants were presented with up to 40 trials; stimuli were animated geometric shapes. A running average of percent novel was computed across blocks of three consecutive trials (Trials 1-3, 2-4, 3-5, etc.). Novelty runs were identified when averaged percent novel was at least 60% for a minimum of four consecutive blocks. Familiarity runs were identified when averaged percent novel was at or below 40% for four or more blocks. Run onset was defined using the trial on which runs began and duration was based on the number of blocks each run entailed.

Results
To determine whether runs differed from what would be found by chance alone, percent novel data from each infant were analyzed, but trial order was shuffled randomly. Novelty and familiarity runs were identified as previously described. Trial shuffling was repeated 100 times for each infant’s data, and then averaged. Using t tests, these results were compared with data when trial order was preserved. Few differences were found (see Figure 1). Infants produced novelty runs similar to those found after trial shuffling with the exception of Visit 1 when random shuffling produced more novelty runs, t(17) = 2.39, p = .03. Shuffling produced more familiarity runs at Visit 3, t(17) = 3.19, p = .005, and produced longer familiarity runs at Visit 2, t(9) = 2.09, p = .07.

Conclusions
In summary, run frequency and duration changed very little when trial order was shuffled. Infants produced novelty runs about as often, as rapidly, and for about as long whether trial order was preserved or not. These data suggest that infant looking is more stochastic and less memory dependent than suggested by the traditional view. During early infancy, novelty preferences appear to emerge from moment-to-moment changes in looking as visual exploration takes place.

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