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2008 - WESTERN POLITICAL SCIENCE ASSOCIATION Pages: 36 pages || Words: 10622 words || 
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1. Craig, Carolyn. "Framing Immigration Reform, Framing Immigrants: An Analysis of Newspaper Coverage of Immigration Reform August 2005, April 2006, and October 2006" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the WESTERN POLITICAL SCIENCE ASSOCIATION, Manchester Hyatt, San Diego, California, Mar 20, 2008 Online <PDF>. 2019-07-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p238084_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: This paper analyzes newspaper coverage of immigration reform in mainstream English-language newspapers prior to, and following passage of immigration reform legislation by the US House of Representatives in December, 2005. The purpose of this project is twofold: 1) To illuminate the media’s participation in the social construction of the policy “problem” and acceptable “solutions” to it; 2) To illuminate how the social construction of the policy problem and solution contributes to the social construction of a particular group of people in America, namely Latino immigrants. The analysis presented here is based upon a qualitative analysis of a large random sample of newspaper articles published in the northeast and southwest United States during August 2005, April 2006, and October 2006. The analysis reveals both consistency and significant changes in the news coverage of immigration reform between April 2005 and October 2006. I discuss two key findings at length. First, changes in coverage between August 2005 and October 2006 portray an expansion in the terms of the debate about immigration reform that has proven significant in the course of the policy’s development. Second, while many articles fail to explain the need for immigration reform, the coverage generally portrays the problem as “illegal immigrants” from south of the US-Mexican border. This portrayal contributes to the social construction of Latinos as the Other. This project therefore enhances our understanding of the social construction of immigration policy and its subjects, and the print media’s contribution to this process.

2013 - Northeastern Political Science Association Pages: unavailable || Words: 7467 words || 
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2. Jacob, Rafael. "“October Surprisesˮ: Media Myth or Political Phenomenon?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Northeastern Political Science Association, Sonesta Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, Nov 14, 2013 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-07-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p675437_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: One of the great initial wonders to the student of public opinion is the realization of how many of the field’s main issues remain hotly contested decades after the publication of the first scientific polls. One of these central inquiries goes to the very heart of democratic life: what, exactly, makes people vote the way they do? Are elections largely preordained affairs decided long in advance by structural and / or institutional forces overwhelming any potential for human agency – or are they unpredictable contests prone to wild swings, turns and surprises? What are the implications for distinct, concrete campaign “shocksˮ on voters? Can such shocks alter the trajectory of an election – and, if so, to what extent? It is the aim of this paper to evaluate one precise type of campaign shocks: that of so-called “October surprises.ˮ

Specifically, this paper seeks to answer the following question: are “October Surprisesˮ cataclysmic events accompanied by a large swing in a campaign’s closing days and weeks, or are they rather minor parts of global, overarching forces that have already set the election in stone by the time they occur? Given the striking amount of attention given to October Surprises in the media in comparison to academia, this research will attempt to offer a first step in gauging whether the general concept should be relegated to the annals of media folklore – or whether it should, on the contrary, receive more ample consideration from political scientists.

Looking at four distinct presidential elections - those of 1996, 2000, 2008, and 2012 - from a “time-seriesˮ perspective, we arrive at findings suggesting that October Surprises are more than a journalistic myth, in that they are associated with clear subsequent changes in voting intentions. These changes, as is the case both in 2000 and in 2012, are sufficient to significantly alter the trajectory of campaigns in their closing days and, arguably, the vote totals of candidates come Election Night. As important as these changes are, however, they are by no means unique: larger, more pronounced shifts in trial-heat polling data can be observed at multiple other junctures in most of the campaigns examined, and overall variance does not appear greater at the end of a race marked by an October Surprise than of a contest without one.

2017 - ICA's 67th Annual Conference Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
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3. Russell, Frank. "Framing #October: Depictions of Social Dissent and Sports Celebration in St. Louis News Media Tweets" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ICA's 67th Annual Conference, Hilton San Diego Bayfront, San Diego, USA, May 25, 2017 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-07-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1230131_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This study explores how St. Louis news media depicted two major local stories on Twitter in October 2014: protests related to the fatal shooting of a young African-American man by a white police officer and the St. Louis Cardinals’ appearance in Major League Baseball playoffs. Most news in the Twitter posts was framed in an episodic manner. Many Ferguson-related posts included conflict frames, which were less apparent in the sports-related tweets.

2006 - International Studies Association Words: 424 words || 
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4. Singer, Ashraf. "The Role of U.S. National Security Council in Managing The Middle East Crises (Suez Crisis 1956 and October War 1973)" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association, Town & Country Resort and Convention Center, San Diego, California, USA, Mar 22, 2006 <Not Available>. 2019-07-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p99918_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: AbstractA primary concern of crisis management researchers is defining the characteristics of crisis events, and determining the quality of organization needed to achieve the best outcomes. This paper examines how the Eisenhower and Nixon administrations try to manage two foreign policy crises that burst in the Middle East, and provide a good example of how the Eisenhower and Nixon administrations formulated the U.S. foreign policy. In this paper I provide evidence to show that Eisenhower used NCS, and listen carefully to Dulles?s recommendation after the occurrence of Suez crisis, Eisenhower was at the centre of events. Nixon did not use NSC, but the secretary of state Kissinger was a main player actor in managing October war 1973 decision making process. IntroductionIt is difficult to determine who is responsible to make and implement decisions within the time of any crisis or more precisely at the moment of unexpected events. Nowadays, some Americans may worry about the increasing power of a few figures surrounding the presidency, about the nature of the relationship between the president and NSC, or about the way the staffs organizes the U.S. foreign policy agenda . Clearly, within the time of crisis few figures will be involved in the decision- making process. For example, ?A group of peripheral actors from other executive branch agencies become part of the advisory team.? This paper examines the role of the NSC in formulating foreign policy, using as example the two Middle East crises (Suez Crisis 1956 and October War 1973).This purpose of this paper is studying modern presidency, especially studying foreign policy making under Eisenhower and Nixon administrations, and how effectively a president manage crises. However, I can not make generalization about the aspect foreign policy decision-making by all U.S. presidents based on Suez crisis and October war.This paper is divided into three sections. In the first section I will employ the analytical framework considers the role of NSC under the president in framing the development of the organization structure of NSC, some aspects of NSC coordination during Eisenhower and Nixon. In the second section, I will examine the role of individuals (president or the role of National Security Advisor) within the time of two Middle East crises. In the final section, I will analyze two cases studies using the framework developed in the section one, the first case the Suez Crisis 1956 and the second case the October War 1973 to study the NSC performances within the framework of evaluation both of Eisenhower and Nixon?s decision making aspects in dealing with foreign policy crises.

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