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2011 - Northeastern Political Science Association Pages: unavailable || Words: 5489 words || 
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1. McKee, Lauren. "Blood and Oil: The Difference Between War for Oil and War Because of Oil" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Northeastern Political Science Association, Crowne Plaza, Philadelphia, PA, Nov 17, 2011 Online <PDF>. 2019-06-15 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p521195_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: In modern times, it seems one of the most popular explanations for war has simply been for resources, especially oil. In regards to the recent incursion in Libya, newspaper headlines read “Libya: Is It Oil or Democracy?” and “Fights to Control Libya’s Oil Continuing,” two examples of media reporting that are centered on the idea that Western forces have entered another country to capture and profit from its oil.However, there is a distinct and important difference between going to war for oil and going to war because of oil, a distinction that is seldom made in scholarship, media reporting, polling, or even general conversation. Were a country to go to war with the intent of securing oil for its own purposes, there are certain actions that one would expect to see (and not see), which shall be discussed here in the context of the 2003 American invasion of Iraq. This research first intends to illustrate that there does exist a growing and misguided public perception as to why wars are fought concerning oil. In an attempt to prove that this belief is a misconception, I will show that the U.S.’s motivations in Iraq were more a result of the political, economic and security issues that stem from oil rather than for the supply of oil itself, thus demonstrating the distinction between going to war for oil and going to war because of oil.

2011 - Oklahoma Research Day Words: 200 words || 
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2. Anderson, Shaquille. "Examination of (Canola Oil, Soybean Oil, Corn Oil) as Biodiesel" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Oklahoma Research Day, Cameron University, Lawton, OK, Nov 04, 2011 <Not Available>. 2019-06-15 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p549625_index.html>
Publication Type: Abstract
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Biodiesel, mono alkyl esters is diesel fuel made from natural, renewable sources such as vegetable oils. These mono alkyl esters are prepared from canola oil. The approximate composition of the canola biodiesel includes: oleic acid (61%), Linoleic (32%), Palmitic (4%), Stearic (2%), saturated fatty (1%). Biodiesel can be prepared by transesterificaion. Canola oil is heated at 65oC to 70oC with methanol using sodium hydroxide as a catalyst. Water reduces the heat of combustion of the bulk fuel meaning more smoke, harder starting, and less power. Removing water from the biodiesel will increase energy in the heat of combustion. Different methodologies will be investigated to reduce the water content including the use of different catalyst and using different chemicals to break the emulsion. Removing water and heating prevents the decrease in energy of the biodiesel. Canola oil biodiesel was analyzed to determine heat of combustion, density, refractive index, and infra-red spectrum. Because of the lower levels of the toxic and irritating properties of genetically modified rapeseed oil, Canola oil is a more promising source for manufacturing than the natural oil as a renewable alternative to fossil fuels. Canola oil is made at a processing facility by crushing the genetically modified rapeseed.

2016 - 87th SPSA Annual Conference Words: 223 words || 
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3. Heuer, Rae. "Oil for Terrorism: The effectiveness of Western intervention in ISIS's oil smuggling operations" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 87th SPSA Annual Conference, Caribe Hilton, San Juan, Puerto Rico, Jan 07, 2016 <Not Available>. 2019-06-15 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1078599_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: ISIS has established itself as a threat to both Western nations and Middle Eastern countries. The most critical factor in destroying this threat, the organization’s linchpin, is oil. Oil has provided ISIS with both the funds necessary to finance an expanding infrastructure and population, as well as, a sought after natural resource that provides both military and political mobility. The West has attempted to target this linchpin, hoping to diminish the threat of ISIS, by demonstrating military force in the form of airstrikes. This military solution, while it succeeded in slightly decreasing production rates, has in no way prohibited ISIS from obtaining lucrative profits through oil sales, nor has it inhibited their procurement of fuel through oil refinery. With the military solution having failed, and economic power as the source of the problem, it is reasonable to focus on political influence as a way to limit the power that oil sales have in supporting the ISIS regime. In discussing this hypothesis, I will focus on Turkey, a primary route taken by ISIS oil smugglers, to determine whether an increase in diplomatic influence by Western nations would give Turkey reason to tighten their borders and lessen their reliance on black market oil. Presenting countries with an incentive to discontinue the purchase of black market oil would decrease oil sales and deplete ISIS’s economic power.

2008 - ISA's 49th ANNUAL CONVENTION, BRIDGING MULTIPLE DIVIDES Pages: 37 pages || Words: 10678 words || 
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4. Deese, David. "Politics and Oil Export Levels in a New World Oil Market" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ISA's 49th ANNUAL CONVENTION, BRIDGING MULTIPLE DIVIDES, Hilton San Francisco, SAN FRANCISCO, CA, USA, Mar 26, 2008 Online <PDF>. 2019-06-15 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p254175_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: This paper aims to identify and explain the primary incentives and disincentives for Saudi Arabia to increase its steady state level of oil exports in the future. For Saudi elites in particular and those of other major oil exporting states in the Middle East it can be argued that fundamental changes have occurred in the factors underlying their strategies for oil production and exports. With world oil prices relatively stable at substantially higher than historical levels, the escalation of war in Iraq, enhanced Iranian and decreased US influence in certain areas of the Middle East, rapidly growing domestic demand for petroleum products in most main exporting states, and robust growth of world oil demand driven by Chinese, Indian, and US economic growth, it is crucial to reassess major elements of prevailing understandings about future levels of OPEC oil exports. Specifically, this paper asks if Saudi and other elites in major Middle East oil exporting states might already be finding that their fundamental domestic and foreign objectives are most effectively fulfilled by more conservative levels of future oil exports. In other words, the paper asks if it is time to fundamentally reexamine the analytical bases and approaches of most projections about future oil export levels, at least from the main Persian Gulf exporters. Finally, to the extent that this is true, the paper asks if there shifts which can be made in US and other consumer state foreign policies in order to adjust to the new situation and possibly even to influence major exporters' policies?

2018 - MPSA Annual Conference Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
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5. Hage, Layaal. "The Impact of Ghana’s 2011 Oil Production on the Western Region’s Oil-Bearing Communities" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the MPSA Annual Conference, Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, IL, Apr 05, 2018 <Not Available>. 2019-06-15 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1340291_index.html>
Publication Type: Undergraduate Poster
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This paper explores the effects of Ghana’s 2011 oil production on oil-bearing communities’ living conditions. Upholding its democratic legacy in a region infiltrated by resource-related conflicts, the findings suggest the lack of adverse effects.

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