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2009 - The Mathematical Association of America MathFest Words: 151 words || 
1. Huang, Ruya. and Lester, Cynthia. "Application of local regularization for an inverse problem of option pricing problem of option pricing" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The Mathematical Association of America MathFest, Portland Marriott Downtown Waterfront, Portland, OR, Aug 06, 2009 <Not Available>. 2019-12-11 <>
Publication Type: Student Paper
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: We explore the theoretical and numerical application of local regular-
ization methods to an inverse problem rising from financial option pricing.
Our purpose is to find the volatility function from noisy call option prices.
This is an important problem not only in theory but also for practitioners
working in the financial world. However, it has been shown that finding
the volatility function from option prices is an ill-posed inverse problem.
That is, very small noise in the observed data will lead to huge deviation
in the solution (instability). Whenever faced with ill-posed problems due
to instability, we need to apply some regularization methods in order to
stabilize the problem. However, the existing methods such as Tikhonov
regularization, do not take the special structure (causal structure) of this
option pricing problem into consideration which leads to nontrivial com-
putational costs. In this paper, we apply local regularization to the option
pricing problem. In addition, we discretize the problem and show our re-
sults through numerical examples.

2003 - American Political Science Association Pages: 23 pages || Words: 6567 words || 
2. Klotz, Robert. "The Past and Present Use of the Nuclear Option for Stopping Filibusters" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Philadelphia Marriott Hotel, Philadelphia, PA, Aug 08, 2003 <Not Available>. 2019-12-11 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: To understand the contemporary debate over the nuclear option for stopping filibusters, it is necessary to understand why it was used in the House but not in the Senate during the 51st Congress (1889-1891). The importance of leadership in this explanation suggests that the nuclear option is still available in the U.S. Senate. Whether this availability is affected by changes in the legal environment since 1891 is examined.

2006 - American Sociological Association Pages: 24 pages || Words: 9038 words || 
3. Carberry, Ed. "Defending Organizational Legitimacy After Enron: The Symbolic Use of Stock Option Accounting" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Montreal Convention Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, Aug 10, 2006 Online <PDF>. 2019-12-11 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: This paper examines the forces driving the adoption of an accounting practice, stock option expensing (SOE), among the Fortune 500 in the wake of the recent corporate scandals. I argue that in the ensuing debates and challenges to the legitimacy of existing institutional frameworks governing corporate behavior, SOE became a symbol of normative legitimacy and a way for organizations to defend against threats to their own legitimacy. In analyzing the effects of different types of legitimacy threats, the results indicate that organizations in industries that were under intensive levels of investigation were more likely to adopt SOE, but that negative media scrutiny and shareholder activism did not influence SOE adoption. The results also suggest that as the Financial Accounting Standards Board threatened to require SOE, the significance of the practice as a symbol of normative legitimacy began to diminish. The findings broaden and deepen our understanding of how organizations engage in symbolic practice adoption to defend their legitimacy as well as the processes shaping the social construction of accounting practices. This paper also provides empirical support for recent theoretical claims regarding legitimacy defense and expands upon recent work that has made links between the impression management literature and neoinstitutional theory.

2005 - International Studies Association Pages: 32 pages || Words: 21155 words || 
4. Preston, Thomas. "Has North Korea Achieved 'Security Juche'?: How Evolving Trends in Pyongyang's WMD Capabilities Will Constrain U.S. Foreign Policy and Military Options on the Korean Peninsula" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association, Hilton Hawaiian Village, Honolulu, Hawaii, Mar 05, 2005 <Not Available>. 2019-12-11 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Over the coming decade, the United States will be increasingly forced to recognize an unpleasant turn of events from its standpoint - namely, that Northeast Asian security relationships have been fundamentally altered by North Korea's entry into the nuclear weapons club and its evolving WMD capabilities. No longer will Pyongyang be faced with the historic fate of weaker states facing stronger ones, which Thucydides described as being one in which 'the strong do as they will and the weak suffer what they must.' Instead, North Korea will be able to credibly threaten to retaliate using its WMD arsenal and visit a level of destruction upon neighboring states and U.S. military forces in the region that would far exceed any possible gain envisioned by policymakers considering a pre-emptive attack or some other fundamental challenge to Pyongyang's central interests. Although North Korea's nascent nuclear capabilities (as well as her substantial conventional ones) had by 2004 already rendered pursuit of the Bush administration's 'pre-emptive war doctrine' on the Korean peninsula extraordinarily dubious - the growing WMD capabilities of Pyongyang over the coming years will rapidly consign such gambits to the category of 'impossibilities' as security relationships are dramatically redrawn. The key challenge for American foreign policy will be to correctly understand these changing circumstances, accept those which are inevitable, and adapt our political and military policies on Korea appropriately. In a fundamental sense, this paper will argue that this will require a re-emphasis upon political and diplomatic paths forward in Korea, and a de-emphasis upon the consideration of military options by U.S. policy makers. The paper will assess the current state of the U.S.-North Korean security relationship, and its interconnection to the political and security concerns of both South Korea and Japan. How has North Korea's present level of WMD capabilities placed constraints on American power or otherwise altered the security rubric? Analyzing the direction of current trends in North Korean WMD capabilities and extrapolating these into the future, what will the likely consequences of these growing capabilities be for interstate security relationships over the coming decade? Will Pyongyang achieve 'security juche' and be able to enjoy a stable nuclear deterrent relationship vis-à-vis the U.S. and South Korea? What are the limitations of North Korea's ability to deter potential opponents (both now and in the future)? What are the possible implications of these developments for the existing literature on nuclear proliferation? In this paper, I will be applying an analytical framework from the book I am currently writing, From Lambs to Lions: The Impact of Nuclear and Biological Weapons Proliferation Upon Future State Security Relationships, to explore the implications of North Korea's evolving WMD capabilities in terms of its effect on deterrence and stability, how these changes alter North Korea's available nuclear or military options, and how these might constrain American military options. Discussion of WMD will also include consideration of North Korea's chemical and biological weapons programs, and how these may influence security relationships.

2005 - International Studies Association Words: 150 words || 
5. Pegahi, Negeen. "Options to Escalate: Explaining Variations in the Strategies of Non-State Actors" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association, Hilton Hawaiian Village, Honolulu, Hawaii, Mar 05, 2005 <Not Available>. 2019-12-11 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: While a great deal of research has been done on why certain actors may be more likely than others to choose to engage in political violence, little work addresses how non-state actors make choices among strategies of political violence. This paper will present a framework explaining such decisions: specifically under what conditions non-state actors select military vs. civilian targets in- vs. out-of-area. The paper will begin by defining the actors, their interests, and their available strategies. It will then explain the cost-benefit calculations underpinning the choice of target type and location, as well as how these calculations can change over time. Finally the model developed will be applied to several cases of current import drawn from Southwest Asia. Understanding how non-state actors select strategies will facilitate greater understanding of both the threat posed by such actors as well as how to best combat it.

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