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2008 - NCA 94th Annual Convention Pages: 22 pages || Words: 5130 words || 
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1. Jumper, Rachel. "Parenting Style and Parent-Child Communication: Are there Differences between Parents of Gifted Adolescents and Parents of Non-Labeled Adolescents?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the NCA 94th Annual Convention, TBA, San Diego, CA, Nov 20, 2008 Online <PDF>. 2019-08-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p257680_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: This pilot study examined the differences between parenting styles of parents with gifted adolescents and non-labeled adolescents. Comparisons were made between parents of gifted and parents of non-labeled to examine if there are differences between the ways that these parents communicate with their children. Analysis revealed that parents of the gifted were more likely to verbally admonish their children, have a greater knowledge of school activities, and report that their children disclose more information to them than the parents of non-labeled children. Discussion focuses on specific characteristics of the gifted that may be responsible for these findings as well as the need for future studies examining differences between parent-child communications of gifted children.

2016 - Native American and Indigenous Studies Association Annual Conference Words: 235 words || 
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2. Ware, Felicity. "“It’s hard being a young parent, it’s even harder being a young Māori parent” Young Indigenous parents experiences in NZ" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Native American and Indigenous Studies Association Annual Conference, Ala Moana Hotel, Honolulu, Hawaii, May 18, 2016 <Not Available>. 2019-08-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1109682_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The voices and experiences of young indigenous parents are lacking in research, particularly in Aotearoa New Zealand. Consequently, policy has been informed by mostly non-indigenous, older, ‘professionals’ who continue to frame early childbearing and ethnicity in terms of risk factors and negative outcomes for mother and child. To counter the problematisation and stigmatisation of early indigenous childbearing and privilege indigenous perspectives, this research focused on young Māori parents’ experiences of support during pregnancy, birth and early parenting. Kaupapa Kōrero, a qualitative narrative-based approach was used to gather, present and analyse their perspectives. This approach was situated in an indigenizing research tradition and informed by Māori knowledge and oral traditions. Kaupapa Kōrero applies a whakapapa (kinship) framework to the analysis of the interviews. This approach identifies individual stories and demonstrates how they are located within layers of interrelated narratives that influence the experience of parenting for young Māori. These layers illuminate how young parents construct their own changing identity (Tōna ake ao), link themselves to others (Tōna whānau), link their narrative to Māori culture, identity and parenting (Te Ao Māori), and locate themselves in the wider social, economic, historical and political context (Te Ao whānui). Using this approach revealed the intersection of culture and early parenting that may otherwise be overlooked. These insights are invaluable for informing policy, research, service provision and practice that enhance the health and wellbeing of young Māori parents and their children.

2015 - SRCD Biennial Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
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3. Portnow, Sam., Hussain, Saida., Wilson, Melvin., Shaw, Daniel., Dishion, Thomas. and GARDNER, FRANCES. "Harsh Parenting and Parental School Involvement Predicting Differences Between Parent and Teacher Observations of Problem Behavior" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the SRCD Biennial Meeting, Pennsylvania Convention Center and the Philadelphia Marriott Downtown Hotel, Philadelphia, PA, Mar 19, 2015 <Not Available>. 2019-08-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p955781_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Poster
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Differences between parents and teacher reports of observations of child problem behavior are common (De Los Reyes & Kazdin, 2005). Racial/ethnic group differences are frequently cited as predictors of differences between parent and teacher observations of child problem behavior, without an examination of their genesis (Lau, Garland, Yeh, McCabe, Wood, & Hough, 2004; Zimmerman, Khoury, Vega, Gill, & Warheit, 1995). In addition, socioeconomic status is a confound in past studies. Harsh parenting and a lack of parental involvement in school are associated with elevated rates of behavior problems in school (Hill et al., 2004; Simons, Whitbeck, Conger & Conger, 1991; Stormshak et al., 2000); African American and poor Hispanic parents report using harsh parenting practices more often than Caucasian parents (Cardona, Nicholson, & Fox, 2000; Laosa, 1980; McLoyd, 1990), and poor African American and Hispanic parents report less school involvement than middle class Caucasian parents (Lee & Bowen, 2006). Thus, harsh parenting and a lack of parental involvement in school may underlie differences in parent and teacher ratings of child problem behavior. We hypothesized that greater harsh parenting and less parental involvement in school would predict teacher reports of more problem behavior than parents, and that these effects would exist across racial and ethnic groups.
The present study used measures of harsh parenting in early childhood (ages 2 through 5) and measures of parental involvement in school at ages 7.5 through 9.5 to predict differences between parents and teachers observations of children’s problem behavior at ages 7.5 through 9.5 in a low-income (66% with annual income below $20,000), ethnically diverse (28% African American, 13% Hispanic) sample. The sample for the current study included 526 African American (N=163), Caucasian (N=313), and Hispanic (N=50) families who were participants in the Early Steps Multisite Study, a randomized clinical trial to investigate the efficacy of the Family Check-Up in preventing the development of problem behavior in early childhood.
Our hypotheses were partially supported. As shown in Figure 1, in a model that included all families, observed harsh parenting at ages 2 to 5 is related to teachers observing more behavior problems than parents, whereas using parent reports, harsh parenting predicted parents observing more behavior problems than teachers. In addition, teacher-reported lack of parental involvement in school predicted teachers observing more behavior problems than parents. Partitioning the model into racial/ethnic groups, results indicated that observed and self-reported harsh parenting predicts differences in parent and teacher observations of problem behavior only for Caucasian and Hispanic families, whereas teacher-reported lack of parental involvement in school predicts differences in parent and teacher observations of problem behavior only for African American and Hispanic families. Recommendations and strategies for reducing differences between parent and teacher observations will be discussed.

2015 - SRCD Biennial Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
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4. Harmon, Bethany., Diaz, Guadalupe., Hatfield, Bridget., Rennekamp, Denise. and Sektnan, Michaella. "Perceptions of Parenting Knowledge and Behaviors: Latino Parents in Parenting Education Programs" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the SRCD Biennial Meeting, Pennsylvania Convention Center and the Philadelphia Marriott Downtown Hotel, Philadelphia, PA, Mar 19, 2015 <Not Available>. 2019-08-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p955966_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Poster
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The influence of positive and effective parenting skills on children’s developmental outcomes has been well established (Brooks-Gunn & Markman, 2005; Carter & Kahn, 1996; Debord & Matta, 2002), and parenting education programs (PEPs) are a promising mechanism to improve parenting skills and promote positive, effective parenting (Family Strengthening Policy Center, 2007; Moore, Caal, Rojas & Lawner, 2014). However, less research has focused on the influence of these programs for Latino parents, who generally face additional barriers to access community resources and programs (Moreno & Valencia, 1999; Olivos, 2006). The present study employed quantitative and qualitative methodologies to investigate three research questions: 1) What are the background characteristics of Latino parents who participate in PEP in rural Oregon? 2) How does participating in a PEP influence parents’ perceptions of their parenting knowledge and behaviors? 3) How does participating in a PEP influence parents’ perceptions of their child’s behaviors?
Sixteen self-identified Latino parents were recruited by organizations implementing multiple week community-based parenting education programs in rural Oregon to participate in a focus group six months after completing a PEP in Spanish. The focus groups were facilitated in Spanish, lasted about one hour, and included questions such as: “How did these classes help you as parents?” and “Have you changed any of your parenting strategies because of these classes?” Recordings of the focus groups were transcribed and double-coded in Spanish by the two first authors. Parents completed a background questionnaire (e.g., formal education, age, gender, employment status, and access to community resources). Parents also reported on their parenting knowledge, parenting behaviors, and their child’s behaviors (0-5 scale).
Results for research question 1 are presented in Table 1. Education levels ranged from less than high school to graduate degrees; parents reported accessing a wide variety of community resources. For research question two, Latino parents perceived positive and helpful changes in their families six months after their participation in the PEP and continued to implement the knowledge from the PEP at home (M = 4.18; SD = 0.96). Participants rated their parenting knowledge (M = 4.13; SD = 0.55) and their parenting behaviors (M = 4.11; SD = 0.64) highly. The findings regarding parent’s knowledge and behaviors were echoed in the focus groups. Several parents described changes in their communication style, discipline strategies, school readiness, and family health activities (see Table 2). Results for research question three indicated that parents also reported seeing positive changes in their child’s behavior at home and at school (M = 4.20; SD = 1.08) six months after the PEP. One parent stated, “I see differences in the way that my child behaves at school and home, with his relationship with his teacher and his siblings.” These findings suggest that Latino parents’ participation in PEP may serve as a pathway to improve their access to community resources and promote parenting knowledge and behaviors to improve the well being of their children.

2015 - SRCD Biennial Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
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5. Han, Zhuo Rachel. and Shaffer, Anne. "Parental emotion regulation mediates the links between parenting stress and parenting behaviors across two countries" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the SRCD Biennial Meeting, Pennsylvania Convention Center and the Philadelphia Marriott Downtown Hotel, Philadelphia, PA, Mar 19, 2015 <Not Available>. 2019-08-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p955314_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Poster
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Parenting stress refers to the aversive psychological reaction to the demands of being a parent. Elevated levels of parenting stress may have serious negative effects (Deater-Deckard, 1998). Considerable research on parenting stress has been done regarding its relations with child outcomes (e.g., Rodriguez, 2011). Research has not ventured far into more direct links between parenting stress and parenting behaviors nor has the literature addressed the mediating mechanisms. One potential mediator is parental emotion regulation, as elevated levels of parenting stress may hinder parents’ abilities to regulate emotions, which in turn may harm their behaviors during parenting (Dix, 1991). Additionally, scant research has examined the roles of culture on these constructs. The current study thus addresses the following questions: 1) if levels of parental stress, behaviors and emotion regulation vary by culture, 2) what are the relations between parenting stress and behaviors, 3) does parental emotion regulation mediate the above links.

The study sample comprises 64 U.S. (38 girls and 26 boys) and 90 Chinese mother-child dyads (41 girls and 49 boys). Child age ranges from 8-12 (M = 9.07, SD = 1.57). The dyads participated in a 4-minute task where they discussed a chosen topic of conflict. This task was coded for parental emotion regulation and parenting behaviors. Parenting stress was measured via Parenting Stress Index-Short Form (PSI-SF; Abidin, 1995); parental emotion regulation was measured using the composite score from Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS; Gratz & Roemer, 2004) and behavioral coding. Two parenting behaviors were examined through behavioral observation (i.e., psychological unavailability and support for autonomy). As for now, all U.S. and 43 Chinese families have been coded. The current analyses are based on the available data and will be updated.

A series of independent samples t-tests demonstrated that Chinese parents reported significantly higher levels of parenting stress (t (100) = -3.27, p = .001) and more psychologically unavailable behaviors (t (103) = -2.86, p = .005) compared to their American counterparts. However, they did not differ significantly on emotion regulation (t (97) = 1.29, p = .247) or support for autonomy (t (103) = .225, p = .82). Correlational tests showed that parenting stress was significantly associated with psychological unavailability (r (102) = .323, p = .001) and support for autonomy (r (102) = -.232, p = .019) for the whole sample. Two meditational models demonstrated that the direct effects of parenting stress on psychological unavailability (indirect point estimate = .0141, SE = .0047, 95% BCa CI = .0066 to .0255) and supportive for autonomy (indirect point estimate = -.0130, SE = .0040, 95% BCa CI = -.0220 to -.0065) were fully mediated by parental emotion dysregulation. Further analyses with one’s culture of origin as moderator on mediation models will be performed once coding is completed. The current results indicated that U.S. and Chinese mothers with higher levels of parenting stress seemed to have more difficulties with emotion regulation, which in turn hindered their abilities to be psychologically available and provide support for autonomy to their children.

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