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2016 - American Society of Criminology – 72nd Annual Meeting Words: 210 words || 
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1. Branic, Nicholas., Kubrin, Charis. and Hipp, John. "Whither Park or Withering Park? Extending Research on the Parks-Crime Relationship" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology – 72nd Annual Meeting, Hilton New Orleans Riverside, New Orleans, LA, <Not Available>. 2019-10-16 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1147304_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Paper
Abstract: A growing criminological literature finds that public parks serve an important, albeit mixed, role within the contemporary social landscape. Local parks can benefit neighborhoods by providing residents with positive outlets for physical activity and social engagement. Research also finds, however, that these public spaces can serve as crime generators and thus foster delinquent and criminal activities. The results from prior literature suggest that parks are associated with higher levels of crime on average but also observe that this relationship is not uniform across parks. Instead, the relationship depends largely on the particular characteristics and conditions exhibited within parks themselves, including types of amenities offered and levels of ambient guardianship. We extend this area of scholarship by examining how the subjective appearance and visual quality of parks may differentially relate to levels of neighborhood crime. Whereas poorly maintained parks may reflect disorder and contribute to higher crime levels, higher-quality parks may suggest greater community investment and dissuade potential offenders. Additionally, parks that are more attractive may draw greater numbers of visitors who then bolster local guardianship. Drawing upon primary observational data coded via Google Street View, we analyze how the subjective appearance of parks, in addition to the presence of internal amenities, relates to neighborhood-level crime in four Southern California cities.

2008 - MPSA Annual National Conference Pages: 42 pages || Words: 8759 words || 
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2. Emanuelson, David. "A Comparative Analysis of Illinois, Ohio, Colorado and South Dakota Park Districts and Parks and Recreation Departments to Wisconsin, Iowa, Missouri, Kansas, Indiana, and Michigan Parks and Recreation Departments" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the MPSA Annual National Conference, Palmer House Hotel, Hilton, Chicago, IL, Apr 03, 2008 Online <PDF>. 2019-10-16 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p268798_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Since Bollens (1957) first identified special districts as a “dark continent” in political science, the number of non-school special districts in the United States has grown substantially. During the past 50 years, however, political science objections to the fragmentation of metropolitan government have remained largely theoretical.
This study examines one form of non-school special districts-- park districts-- and evaluates their efficiency and effectiveness. The study evaluates park district services compared to similar services provided by consolidated general-purpose municipal governments.
Two competing hypotheses are identified. The first states that parks and recreation departments provide higher levels of efficiency in delivering services than park districts. The second states that park districts provide higher service levels than municipal parks and recreation departments.
Midwestern states were selected for the study because they have the largest number of non-school special districts in the United States and comparable numbers of parks and recreation departments within municipalities and county governments.
Service levels, autonomy, demographic, and administrator profile data for park districts and parks and recreation departments were collected by surveying an equal number of randomly selected park district administrators and randomly selected parks and recreation department administrators in Midwestern states.
Data was analyzed using comparative means testing, bivariate and multivariate linear regression to test the relationships between service levels, and efficiency levels, as identified in the literature. In addition, these quantitative techniques were used to test competing hypotheses identified in other studies, suggesting that staffing and professional training levels are explanations for service and budgetary levels.
The aggregate results of this study show that structure of government is not an important determinant of total recreation program levels. The study also demonstrates that structure of government is not an important determinant of levels of efficiency.

2010 - 4S Annual Meeting - Abstract and Session Submissions Words: 433 words || 
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3. Morishita, Naoki. "Pragmatic Thoughts and National Park: Boundary of “Satoyama” and National Park System" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 4S Annual Meeting - Abstract and Session Submissions, Komaba I Campus, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan, Aug 25, 2010 <Not Available>. 2019-10-16 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p422195_index.html>
Publication Type: Paper Abstract
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The dichotomy by “Preservation” and “Conservation” has been introduced (cf. Passmore, 1974), and numerous studies in terms of environmental thoughts and environmental ethics have them to overcome the conflict (Kito, 1996). In these studies, the Hetch-Hetchy controversy regarded as one of classical issues of confronting these concepts, which is a dam development problem in the Hetch-Hetchy valley in Yosemite National Park in the United States of America. It has been discussed with the confrontation of "Preservation" disputants who denied developing because of the value of nature, and “Conservation” disputants who approved with a utilitarianism viewpoint of the scientific management, development, and use of natural environment (cf. Kito 1996: 46-9). However, the recent researches focus on the real images of an environmental dispute away from the view of such a confrontation. For instance, Shuichi Kito concerned “Stranger” as environmental activists and revealed local politics of environmental dispute where ecological “Stranger” came from outside and intervened to the development to improve the benefit and convenience of people who live in local.
There is also an attempt to catch the mechanism of the symbiosis of natural environment and the human society after the model of "Satoyama (Hometown Mountains)," which was a classical land use method of Japan. "Satoyama" was one modality of a phased structure of nature-social structure: "Okuyama (Remote mountains)", "Satoyama", "Mura (Village)", and "Machi (City)," and “Satoyama” was the artificial space where people had been maintained while jointly managing the resource in specific villages.
On the other hand, Environmental Pragmatism denies the dualism of subject and object of recognition, human recognition is not a subject that is outside of the object of nature, arguing that the relationship is always interaction, and all from wildness to urban must be treated as “continuum” (Parker, 1996: 29). Moreover, the idea of “Nature of the Culture” revealed to understand nature as man’s composition (Hickman, 1996).
Trends of thoughts such as Environments Pragmatism, Kito’s "Stranger" Concept, and Classic "Satoyama" concept originated in denying the dichotomy of "Preservation" and "Conservation." Therefore, it is necessary to reconsider the Hetch-Hetchy controversy as an origin of binary conception, and to reexamine discussions in the Hetch-Hetchy Controversy about the ideal National Park System.
Hickman, Larry A., “Nature as Culture: John Dewey’s Pragmatic Naturalism,” in Light, A. and Katz, E., (eds.), Environmental Pragmatism, Routledge, 1996, pp. 50-72.
Kito, Shuichi, Reconsidering Environmental Protection: Networks and Environmental Ethics, Tokyo: Chikuma Shobo, 1996.
Parker, Kelly A., “Pragmatism and Environmental Thought,” in Light, A. and Katz, E., (eds.), Environmental Pragmatism, Routledge, 1996, pp. 21-37.
Passmore, John, Man’s Responsibility for Nature: Ecological Problems and Western Traditions, London: Gerald Duckworth & Co. Ltd, 1974.

2015 - American Society of Criminology – 71st Annual Meeting Words: 153 words || 
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4. Ho, Taiping. and Dooley, Brendan. "Is It Safe Parking Your Vehicle at the Hotel Parking Lot?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology – 71st Annual Meeting, Washington Hilton, Washington, DC, Nov 18, 2015 <Not Available>. 2019-10-16 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1023336_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Paper
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Rarely have researchers analyzed the hotel crimes due to limited accessibility and availability of hotel-related crime information. The hotel industry is extremely sensitive to any criminal activity against the hotel visitors at the hotel setting. Nonetheless, the hotel industry has encountered a great challenge in balancing the visitor’s safety and privacy concerns while combating the hotel crimes. The safety measures that the hotels have usually taken are focused on low-skilled guardianship (e.g., security guards) and high-tech surveillance cameras in or surrounding the hotel settings. Unfortunately, such security measures do not necessarily generate the well-defined safety net for the hotel visitors. The present researchers had reviewed the offense-incident reports on hotel-related crimes during the period of 2006-2010 from the Miami-Dade Police Department. Results of this study revealed that criminal victimizations against hotel visitors were primarily property-related and the car break-ins were the major problems at the hotel setting.

2016 - ASEH Annual Conference Words: 290 words || 
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5. DeWitt, Jessica. "Middle Park Syndrome: Securing a Place for Provincial and State Park History in Canadian and US Conservation History" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ASEH Annual Conference, Westin Seattle, Seattle, WA, <Not Available>. 2019-10-16 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1052519_index.html>
Publication Type: Panel Paper
Abstract: As Ney C. Landrum points out in The State Park Movement in America: A Critical Review, state and provincial parks occupy a ‘central position’ in the park and outdoor recreation spectrum between national parks and municipal or city parks. Similar to a middle child, these park middlemen have garnered very little attention from environmental historians in comparison to their park counterparts. National parks, like a first-born, receive the most attention, both popularly and academically. City parks, on the other hand, enjoy a playful and fruitful connection to urban history that ensures higher historiographical coverage. Provincial and state parks have largely been ignored by historians because, as Keith Carlson and Jon Clapperton have pointed out, they lack a centralized, and thus easily analyzable, centralized structure like that which binds national parks. Focusing on the provincial park systems of Alberta and Ontario and the state park systems of Idaho and Pennsylvania, this paper uses a comparative format to explore the overlooked role of state and provincial parks in North American environmental history. This paper looks at three significant focal points from which environmental historians can begin to tame provincial and state park history and bring it into the broader conservation history dialogue. Firstly, this paper looks at the evolution of provincial and state park systems and the way in which the location and character of the parks changed throughout the twentieth-century to accommodate societal desires for accessibility and the further democratization of recreation. Secondly, this paper will look at how provincial and state parks have acted as regional instruments of ecological restoration, not just islands of preservation. Thirdly, this paper will look at opportunities that provincial and state parks provide for illuminating the role of non-elites in environmental and conservation history.

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