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2008 - MPSA Annual National Conference Words: 32 words || 
1. Walker, Brooklyn. "To Participate or Not To Participate: Participation in Hybrid Regimes" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the MPSA Annual National Conference, Palmer House Hotel, Hilton, Chicago, IL, <Not Available>. 2019-12-08 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Despite the large number of competitive authoritarian regimes, we know relatively little about how and why individuals would engage in political participation. This paper will explore political participation in competitive authoritarian regimes.

2009 - 33rd Annual National Council for Black Studies Words: 208 words || 
2. Thomas, Leonard. "Black Political Participation: A Sociohistorical Look at the Electoral Participation of Blacks" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 33rd Annual National Council for Black Studies, Renaissance Atlanta Hotel Downtown, Atlanta, GA, Mar 19, 2009 <Not Available>. 2019-12-08 <>
Publication Type: Individual Presentation
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Black politics at the basic level is study of the phenomena of black voting and its relation to convention political behavior. By itself, voting by blacks is often not sufficient to affect lasting social change. In the recent past - at least - it has been a means of securing legal justice and making inroads in local and national politics. Therefore, political participation here will be confined to conventional politics: voting and vote-related behavior. This paper explains why those engaged in contemporary social movements and the study of race should reconsider the history of the relationship between race and politics. Race and racialization have defined and delimited, as well shaped interactions between cultural beliefs, expressions, individuals and collective actions, and governmental policies and practices. Likewise, governmental actions in the U.S.—local, state, and national—have profoundly shaped race and its political significance over time. Therefore, understanding race as a social construct, this paper argues that raced sociopolitical movements have contributed to defining racial electoral participation in sociohistorical movements. In the political opportunity model, the group’s goals can only be accomplished by participation through voting. In addition, the paper will examine the struggle over racial categories and connections with power and privilege over time looking at the voting behavior or blacks.

2009 - NCA 95th Annual Convention Pages: unavailable || Words: 10014 words || 
3. Meyer, Kevin. "Student Classroom Participation: Exploring Student Definitions of, Motivations for, and Recommendations Regarding Participation" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the NCA 95th Annual Convention, Chicago Hilton & Towers, Chicago, IL, Nov 11, 2009 Online <PDF>. 2019-12-08 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Despite instructors’ use of participation grades, many students remain silent during class. Undergraduate (n = 134) and graduate (n = 75) student responses to open-ended survey questions were coded and content analyzed to determine student definitions of and motivations for participation, and to compare strategies instructors use to encourage participation with students’ recommendations for eliciting participation. Results indicated that students define participation more broadly than mere speech and are motivated by factors other than grades.

2006 - International Studies Association Pages: 25 pages || Words: 14108 words || 
4. Roberts, Timmons. and Parks, Bradley. "Is Kyoto Suffering From a Wider Disease? Explaining Participation and Non-Participation in the Kyoto Protocol and Other Major Environmental Treaties" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association, Town & Country Resort and Convention Center, San Diego, California, USA, Mar 22, 2006 <Not Available>. 2019-12-08 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: In this paper we develop a sequenced theory of the environmental treaty ratification behavior of nation-states, linking proximal causal explanations of institutionalism, constructivism and realism with historical and structural insights from world-systems theory. We test this theory an index of participation by 192 states in 16 environmental treaties through April, 1999 and three scales for participation in the Kyoto Protocol. There are four main findings. Numbers of NGOs in a nation positively influences participation in environmental treaties overall, but much less so nations’ ratification or non-ratification of the Kyoto Protocol. Kaufmann et al.’s (2003) voice and accountability index is a better predictor of Kyoto behavior than overall patterns on environmental treaties. Third, and very significantly, our new index of the share of environmental foreign assistance received by a nation is among the best predictors of participation in the Kyoto Protocol. Finally, structural dependency of nations on one or relatively few export products directly and indirectly explained nearly sixty percent of the treaty ratification rates overall and a third of Kyoto ratification behavior. This suggests that the spread of institutions and values may not create a world with more adherents to environmental treaties. We may, in fact, be approaching an upper limit in the number of countries that will cooperate on international environmental issues since their willingness and ability to participate may be structurally constrained. On the other hand, if we embed greater development assistance and wealth redistribution mechanisms within environmental treaties, there may be greater interest from those on the bottom. We have apparently uncovered an important part of the structural roots of the civil society strength and democratic institutions that drive participation in international environmental regimes.
Supporting Publications:
Supporting Document
Supporting Document
Supporting Document

2004 - The Midwest Political Science Association Words: 433 words || 
5. Jacobs, Lawrence., Carpini, Michael. and Cook, Fay. "The Worlds Of Political Participation: Similarities and Differences in Discursive Participation and Political Behavior in the United States" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The Midwest Political Science Association, Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, Illinois, Apr 15, 2004 <Not Available>. 2019-12-08 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Political observers have sounded alarms about the
retreat of citizens from engagement in the process of electing
government officials
and influencing the legislative process by which government policy is
made. Rates of voter turnout and contacts with elected officials are at
or near new lows; Americans' sense of trust and confidence in
government officials' performance and responsiveness to their wants
and wishes are also relatively low. If citizens are disengaging from
standard forms of governmental politics, are they also disengaging from
other more basic forms of political participation - talking and
deliberating about policy issues that are matters of local, national,
and international concern? Indeed, civic deliberation is receiving
growing attention from scholars and other political observers. Yet, in
spite of the growing attention to civic deliberation, we know
relatively little about the extent and nature of public deliberation.
This paper will analyze the first national survey designed to examine
the extent, nature, and impact of civic deliberation. The survey
interviewed 1,501 adult Americans in 2003. In particular, we examine
what we call discursive participation - that is, the diverse ways in
which individuals discuss policy issues affecting the local, national,
and international communities in which they live -- from informal
conversations to organized forums whether in person or on the internet.
To appraise the significance of these activities, we compare the extent
and explanations for discursive participation with commonly studied
forms of political behavior (from voting to joining voluntary
The proposed paper will use quantitative methods to investigate two
specific questions. First, how widespread is participation in different
types of discursive practices? We examine in depth 4 forms of
deliberation - a telephone or in-person conversation about policy
issues; internet or instant messaging conversation; organized
deliberation on the internet; and organized face-to-face deliberation.
In particular, we explore the breadth of discursive participation - how
many distinct forms of deliberation do individuals engage in? We
compare the breadth of discursive participation with participation in 3
commonly studied forms of political participation - elite contacting
(e.g. writing a government officials or signing a petition), civic
participation (e.g. volunteering to work in an organization), and
electoral participation (i.e. voting or working for political party or
Second, what explains engagement in discursive participation as
compared to standard forms of political behavior? In particular, we
explore two theories of political participation - one that focuses on
the impact of social and economic status and another that focuses on
civic engagement - such as membership in an organization.
The results from our analysis will provide important and new insights
into the extent and origins of discursive politics. Is discursive
participation more or less widespread than commonly studied forms of
political behavior? Does discursive participation result from the same
kinds of influences as standard forms of political behavior? Answers to
these questions are critical for expanding our empirical understanding
of public deliberation, a growing (but under-tilled) area of

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