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2009 - ISA's 50th ANNUAL CONVENTION "EXPLORING THE PAST, ANTICIPATING THE FUTURE" Words: 44 words || 
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1. Abdeljaber, Hamid. "Human Rights and Peacekeeping: The Introduction of Human Rights to Peacekeeping Missions" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ISA's 50th ANNUAL CONVENTION "EXPLORING THE PAST, ANTICIPATING THE FUTURE", New York Marriott Marquis, NEW YORK CITY, NY, USA, Feb 15, 2009 <Not Available>. 2019-11-21 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p314229_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: The paper will trace the new culture developed in the UN after the end of the Cold War which encompasses human rights in every peacekeeing mission. The new doctrine started to take hold and expand in scope and mandate more frequently in peace-building ope

2017 - APSA Annual Meeting & Exhibition Words: 481 words || 
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2. Asano, Rui. "Endogenous Peace by Peacekeepers? Peacekeeping Operation and Conflict Relapse" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the APSA Annual Meeting & Exhibition, TBA, San Francisco, CA, Aug 30, 2017 <Not Available>. 2019-11-21 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1250418_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Do peacekeeping operations (PKOs) prevent conflict relapses? Since the end of the Cold War, the number of peacekeeping operations has increased, and their mandates have expanded to not only ceasefire observation, but also, what is called, statebuilding. Regardless of such development of PKOs, it is not necessary to say that civil wars are unlikely to recur. Some of previous literature clarify that PKOs have an effect to stop relapses of civil wars, while others do not. In addition to inconsistency in the results, there still remains unknown about (1) which mandate really prevents civil wars from recurring, ceasefire observation or statebuilding and (2) what relationship these two mandates have when preventing relapses of civil wars. Each mandate would have an effect on civil wars according to each theory. Ceasefire observation, mainly conducted by military personnel, resolves commitment problems and asymmetric information through decreasing uncertainty and fear about each belligerent’s actions and intentions. On the other hand, statebuilding, engaged by civilians, plays a role to improve state authority and create political, economic, and social environment for former belligerents to live well. Thus, it increases opportunity costs to participate in civil wars, and decreases grievances against governments. Each of two mandates has such an effect on civil wars, but the effect also has relationship with each other. As with the endogenous growth theory, statebuilding creates conditions for ceasefire observation to show its original effect on civil wars sufficiently. To verify these three propositions, I utilize data regarding military and civilian expenditures of United Nations PKOs as independent variables. Military expenditure is a proxy for ceasefire observation, while civilian’s one for statebuilding. The data are collected from resolutions of the UN Advisory Committee on Administrative and Budgetary Questions (ACABQ). Also, I use the number of deaths included in the UCDP Georeferenced Event Dataset (GED) Version 5 as a dependent variable. Instead of a dummy variable indicating whether a civil war recurs or not, the number of deaths shows us the extent to which the civil war is contested violently. Fixed effects model supports a hypothesis that civilian expenditure of the UN PKOs decreases the number of deaths in civil wars. In particular, the number of deaths killed by governments gets smaller and smaller robustly as civilian expenditure increases. Additionally, an interaction term implies that statebuilding increases the effect of ceasefire observation. Based on these results, I conclude that PKOs contribute to ‘endogenous peace’ through statebuilding. ‘Endogenous peace’ theory provides us knowledge about importance of civilians as an actor to build peace. Conventionally, researchers consider that military personnel of PKOs play a central role to prevent recurrence of civil wars. However, civilians are also, and more than military personnel, crucial according to my results. Their function to establish states’ legitimacy benefits former belligerents endogenously, and consequently prevents recurrence of civil wars. Such a new point of view will broaden our way to understand PKOs' effects.

2008 - ISA's 49th ANNUAL CONVENTION, BRIDGING MULTIPLE DIVIDES Pages: 33 pages || Words: 12872 words || 
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3. Mariani, Renato. "Opening the Peacekeeping Black Box: Peacekeeping Functions and the Duration of Peace" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ISA's 49th ANNUAL CONVENTION, BRIDGING MULTIPLE DIVIDES, Hilton San Francisco, SAN FRANCISCO, CA, USA, Mar 26, 2008 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-11-21 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p252331_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This paper analyzes the impact of peacebuilding functions on the duration of post-conflict peace in civil war settings. The quantitative civil war literature has attempted to examine the impact of peacebuilding operations by focusing on broad categories such as traditional peacekeeping, peace enforcement and multi-dimensional operations. This paper argues that these overly general conceptual categories have not allowed for an accurate testing of the theoretical claims made in the literature. Alternatively, I suggest that peacebuilding operations be classified according to the functions they perform, e.g. humanitarian assistance, monitoring of buffer zones, electoral support, etc. This new taxonomy of peacekeeping, borrowed from Diehl, Druckman and Wall (1998), is used for statistical tests that depict the influence of each peacebuilding function on the duration of post-conflict peace. Preliminary results show that whereas functions such as electoral assistance and monitoring of buffer zones are correlated to longer peace intervals, other functions that are typically performed by external actors, such as state-building and arms control, can increase instability and conflict recurrence.

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