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2012 - ISME World Conference and Commission Seminars Words: 379 words || 
1. Sprikut, Leonid. "Pedagogical Flexibility and Cultural Resistance: An Exploration of Cultural Factors that Shape Music Pedagogic Practices" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ISME World Conference and Commission Seminars, Thessaloniki Concert Hall, Thessaloniki, Greece, Jul 15, 2012 <Not Available>. 2019-04-25 <>
Publication Type: Spoken Paper (Abstract)
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Within the framework of a popular discourse on multiculturalism in music education, the issues related to the multiplicity of world musics have been addressed extensively. Music educators, researchers and scholars have successfully convinced themselves that the musical sounds created by the planet’s human inhabitants have a right to exist in our classroom. However, many theorists tend to disregard the fact that multiculturalism suggests the multiplicity of the instructional approaches, as well. The diversity of music teaching practices, which constitutes a notable social and cultural phenomenon, has not been perceived as a multicultural issue, and has been excluded from the discussion (Sprikut & Bartel, 2010, 29th ISME World Conference, Beijing). As a result, not infrequently, internationally trained music educators are culturally isolated from the music education mainstream in many host societies around the world. While professional flexibility is commonly perceived as a necessary prerequisite for a successful pedagogical adaptation process, internationally educated teachers often seek to preserve and reaffirm their pedagogical cultural identity. This discrepancy not infrequently results in their inability (and reluctance) to participate on an equal basis in both the educational discourse and educational process.
This paper problematizes the notion of pedagogical flexibility and explores some of the factors that facilitate the process of cultural separation. The attempt is made: 1. to identify the key components of a music pedagogic culture, 2. to determine what identifiable characteristics and qualities can be regarded as properties of a culturally distinctive music pedagogic model, 3. to examine how cultural/subcultural context is manifested in the music pedagogy, and 4. to identify and explain some of the factors that might have an impact on the process of decision making related to the transformation of professional values and revision of routine instructional methods of the internationally educated music teachers in a new educational milieu. The paper aims to facilitate meaningful democratic dialogue, which would assist in bridging the gap between diverse music pedagogic traditions and practices that coexist in a contemporary society. It appears that such a dialogue may open numerous possibilities of intellectual and cultural exchange and potential cooperation. The paper concludes with the suggestion that deeper understanding of the cultural factors and processes that shape music pedagogic practices will greatly benefit not only music education profession but also society as a whole.

2007 - American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages Words: 79 words || 
2. Wang, Chuchen. "The Syntactic Structure and Pedagogical Grammar of Middle Voice Constructure in Mandarin Chinese" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages, Henry B. Gonzalez Convention Center, San Antonio, TX, Nov 12, 2007 <Not Available>. 2019-04-25 <>
Publication Type: Session Presentation
Abstract: The paper discusses middle voice in Mandarin Chinese from two research perspectives, semantic and syntax. It contains two major purposes. The first purpose is to explain the syntactic constraints and verbal semantic conditions. Second, this paper will demonstrate a proper pedagogical grammar of middle voice construction for a Chinese teaching curriculum. Based on our analysis of the middle voice construction and the concerns of frequency, structural complexity and crossligulistic analysis, we provide a teaching sequence of middle voice construction.

2007 - International Studies Association 48th Annual Convention Words: 268 words || 
3. Aubry, Véronique. "Un/Doing Empire in the IR Classroom: A Postcolonial Feminist Critique of Iinternational Relations Pedagogical Practices" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association 48th Annual Convention, Hilton Chicago, CHICAGO, IL, USA, Feb 28, 2007 <Not Available>. 2019-04-25 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: For the last two decades, the issue of academic responsibility has been a common concern of both mainstream and critical scholars of international relations (IR). Most of the discussions have framed the problematic in terms of the relationship between theory and practice, and as such, have focused more on the content of the knowledge produced in IR than on the process of knowledge production. Missing from the debate, specifically, is a systematic examination of the social relations of knowledge production.Starting from the claim that IR scholarship has historically been, and continues to be complicit in producing and sustaining imperialist/colonial power relations, this paper argues for the need to critically reflect on the conditions of (im)possibility for the theorization and practice of global politics created through the obscuring of the socio-political relations of knowledge production. Informed by a feminist project of (de)colonizing knowledge production in IR, this paper challenges the colonial compartmentalization of being and knowing by re-locating IR pedagogical practices in the socio-political process of knowledge production. By drawing connections between the ?intimate? site of identity production within the IR classroom and the broader political power dynamics of imperialism, this paper shows how IR pedagogical practices participate in the creation and naturalization of gendered, racialized, classed, and sexualized categories and subjects. Informed by an understanding of Empire-building as involving the production and deployment of not only militaries and capital, but also of subjectivities, the paper concludes by suggesting that those of us who are committed to a project of resistance and opposition to imperializing/colonializing discourses and practices need to reflect on the (im)possibilities created by our pedagogical practices.

2004 - North American Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education Pages: 2 pages || Words: 959 words || 
4. Hristovitch, Sonia. and Mitcheltree, Melissa. "Exploring Middle School Teachers’ Pedagogical Content Knowledge of Fractions and Decimals" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the North American Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education, Delta Chelsea Hotel, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Oct 21, 2004 Online <.PDF>. 2019-04-25 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Exploring Middle School Teachers’ Pedagogical Content Knowledge of Fractions and Decimals

This study is a part of a larger project that aims at developing and sustaining a professional development program that will support middle school mathematics teachers throughout their career stimulating their intellectual growth and improving their content knowledge and pedagogical skills. An important premise of the approach this project is taking is that the program should evolve based on local situations and local needs and any activities that we intend to design for achieving the goals of the program should be tailored by the specificities of the local middle school. Hence, as a first phase of this project we engaged in a study that focused on identifying what are the areas of teachers’ knowledge that need improvement and, respectively, what content should the professional development program deliver to teachers in order to have an impact on students’ achievement. This paper reports on the findings of this study, and more particularly it focuses on describing the main difficulties that 6 grade teachers experience in teaching the notions of fractions and decimals.
Since the end of the 1980’s there has been a strong effort to strengthen and reform the mathematics education in all levels and to improve the preK-12 instructional force (NCTM, 2000; National Research Council, 2001; National Commission on Mathematics and Science Teaching for the 21st Century, 2000). It is widely recognized that high quality teacher preparation both in content and pedagogy is critical for the improvement of student outcomes in mathematics. Numerous studies show that many teachers, especially at the middle school level do not have sufficient content knowledge or adequate background for teaching mathematics. In many schools, middle school teachers with a generalist background, K-8 certification are assigned to teach science and mathematics exclusively (NCR, 2001). Further, teachers need assistance in developing challenging and updated curricula and instructional materials to bring the teaching and learning of mathematics to high standards. Many teachers have been driven to develop their own curriculum materials because the available textbooks were not sufficient to meet the goals of reasoning, communicating, connecting, and problem solving in mathematics; nor were the text materials sufficient to develop an understanding of important concepts, skills, and procedures in mathematics (Lappan, 1998).
Current research in teacher development suggests that teachers should also incorporate content-appropriate methods of teaching that promote students conceptual understanding in mathematics. Several studies (Steinberg, 1985; Carlsen, 1988; Brown & Borko, 1992; Manouchehri, 1997; Ball, 1998; Ball &Bass, 2000) have concluded that content knowledge and understanding of the methods of inquiry in mathematics is at the core of effective teaching and learning. For instance, it has been found (Carlsen, 1988; Ball & Bass, 2000) that teachers with deep conceptual understanding of mathematics not only know more content but also use their content knowledge more effectively in their classrooms. In addition, the research on teachers’ preparation in mathematics (Shulman, 1986, Ball & Bass, 2000) suggests that teachers should possess knowledge that integrates content and pedagogy, called pedagogical content knowledge. In mathematics, this kind of knowledge may include useful representations, unifying concepts, clarifying examples and counter examples, helpful analogies, and important relationships and connections among concepts (Grouws & Shultz, 1996). Thus, pedagogical content knowledge is essential for planning and executing lessons that facilitate effective students learning.
Following the above mentioned recommendations of national organizations and the suggestions of recent research in mathematics education, we centered our professional development efforts at improving teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge. In order to develop effective means (workshops, study groups, summer institutes) for improving teachers’ instructional strategies and students achievement in mathematics, we in engaged in a study of the current status of teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge as reflected in their everyday classroom practices.
The research took place in a rural middle school in the northeast, over the course of a year, as a part of efforts for establishing a professional development program for middle school teachers. In this paper we focus on three sixth-grade teachers in the process of teaching the notions of fractions and decimals. We made regular classroom observations and we had weekly meetings with the teachers discussing teaching strategies, students’ learning, and curriculum issues. During the classroom observations and the discussions with the teachers we took detailed notes and wrote memos which subsequently were analyzed and briefly summarized.
In summary, we found out that all of the three teachers were trying to employ innovative approaches for instruction incorporating problem solving, classroom discourse and hands-on activities. However, their instructional activities were designed and carried out as goals in themselves and did not lead to conceptual understanding of mathematical ideas and the connections among them. In our weekly discussions the teachers shared their concerns and asked for assistance about various aspects of their mathematical preparation and teaching practices. Their main concerns were that they experience difficulties in organizing and sequencing the mathematical topics in a way that will allow them to present the mathematical ideas in a coherent and connected way; they had difficulties in identifying the conceptual prerequisite necessary for the introduction of new concepts and connecting it to other previously studied mathematical concepts; they had difficulties in explaining mathematical ideas and engaging the students in the process of exploring them.
For instance, some of the difficulties experienced by the teachers in the context of fractions and decimals were related to:
1. Learning theories. Teachers failed to develop the operational conception (Sfard, 1991) of fraction as cutting on and taking parts of the whole; instead they introduced directly the symbolic form of a fraction and illustrated various fractions with manipulatives and pictures. Later the teachers had difficulties in relating fractions to division of whole numbers.
2. Connecting mathematical ideas. Teachers had difficulties in connecting previously studied prime factorization of numbers with simplifying fractions and finding common denominator for comparing and adding fractions. They introduced new rather complicated algorithms for finding greatest common divisor and least common multiple.
3. Employing hands on activities and problem solving. In introducing the operations with fractions, manipulatives and problem situations were used mainly for illustration of readily given rules rather then as means for exploration and discovery.
4. Sequencing the topics. One of the teachers, contrary to the textbook suggestion, introduced percentages before introducing the notions of ratio and proportions and, thus caught by surprise, experienced difficulties teaching. On the other hand, all of the teachers intuitively felt that the suggested by the textbook sequencing of topics, first decimals then fractions, is inappropriate and reversed the order of introducing the concepts. However, they had difficulties in developing their own curriculum materials and lessons to make the transition from fractions to decimals smooth and they failed to make the connections between fractions and decimals explicit. The main difficulties were coming from teachers’ reluctance to engage in multi-step operations with symbols. As a result, many of the students did not develop deep conceptual understanding of decimals and some common misconceptions surfaced.
The results of our study suggest that the activities of the professional development program addressing teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge should focus on enhancing teachers’ ability to connect mathematical ideas and, particularly, on their skills to work with symbols when properties of operations with fractions and decimals can be meaningfully derived from prior notions and conceptually connected with them. An important finding of our study is that teachers need further instruction and opportunities for exploration on how to use effectively hands-on activities and manipulatives in a classroom instruction. More specifically, teachers need help in making the transition from using hands-on activities and manipulatives just as means for illustration of directly introduced mathematical concepts to utilizing these tools as means for exploration and discovery leading to students’ deep conceptual understanding of mathematics.

Lappan, G. (1998). Texts and teachers: Keys to improved mathematics learning.
Ball, D.L. (1998). Unlearning to teach mathematics. For the Learning of Mathematics 8(1): 40-48.
Ball, D.L. & Bass, H. (2000). Interweaving content and pedagogy in teaching and
learning to teach: Knowing and using mathematics. In Jo Boaler (Ed.), Multiple
Perspectives on Teaching and Learning (pp.83-104). Westport, CT: Ablex Publishing.
Before is too late. (2000). A report to the nation from the National Committee on Mathematics and Science Teaching for the 21st Century.
Brown & Borko, (1992)
Carlsen, W. (1988). The effect of science teacher subject matter knowledge on teacher questioning and classroom discourse. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Stanford University, CA.
Grouws, D.A., and Schultz, K.A. (1996). In Sikula, J. (ed.), Handbook of Research on Teacher Education, 2nd ed. New York: Macmillan.
Manouchehri, A. (1997). School Mathematics Reform: Implications for Mathematics Teacher Preparation. Journal of Teacher Education 48 (3).
National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM). (1989). Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics. Reston, VA: Author.
NCTM. (1991). Professional Standards for Teaching Mathematics. Reston, VA: Author.
NCTM (2000). Principles and standards for school mathematics. Reston, VA: NCTM.
National Research Council (2001). Educating teachers of science, mathematics, and technology: New practices for the new millennium. Committee on science and teacher preparation.
NRC (1999). How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School. Bransford, John D., Brown, Ann L., and Cocking, Rodney R. (eds.). Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS). 1994. What Teachers Should Know and Be Able to Do. Detroit, MI: Author.
Shulman, L. (1986). Those who understand: Knowledge growth in teaching. Educational Researcher 15,4-14.
Steinberg, R., Haymore, J. and Marks, R. (1985). Teachers’ knowledge and structuring content in mathematics. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Educational Research Association, April 1985, Chicago.

2007 - North American Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education Pages: 8 pages || Words: 4071 words || 
5. Earnest, Darrell. "In Line With Student Reasoning: A Research Methodology with Pedagogical Potential" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the North American Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education, University of Nevada, Reno, Reno, Nevada, Oct 25, 2007 Online <PDF>. 2019-04-25 <>
Publication Type: Research Report
Abstract: This study delineates an effective method for assessing elementary students’ understanding of a core representational format, the number line. Confronting students with irregular transformations (e.g., non-equally spaced tickmarks) provides opportunities to elicit students’ implicit understandings. Students have opportunities to grapple with, and eventually make explicit, hidden conventions of this representation, providing an assessment of student understanding and difficulty.

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