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2007 - International Studies Association 48th Annual Convention Pages: 19 pages || Words: 9365 words || 
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1. Roumpakis, Antonios. "Linking Political Economic Projects and Pension Systems in Europe: A Comparison of the Role of Occupational Pension Funds as Investment Actors in Three European Countries" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association 48th Annual Convention, Hilton Chicago, CHICAGO, IL, USA, Feb 28, 2007 <Not Available>. 2019-09-18 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p181329_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: The paper explores the relation of different political economic projects and the development of pensions as a social right in three countries: Sweden, Germany and United Kingdom. It comprises three parts. The first part provides the conceptual framework, which combines a Polanyian perspective for the social embeddedness of markets with a three dimensional power theoretical approach in order to analyse modes of governance as practices of socio-economic regulation. The second part identifies the link between the macro-level of analysis i.e. different political economy logics and modes of governance and the meso-level of analysis i.e. the institutional paths that these countries have followed in developing their pensions systems and what used to be and currently is the role of occupational pension funds in them. This type of funds offers a prime example of how institutions that originally developed within a logic of social rights have now become actors in the economy. The decision-making of this new actor is however depended on the power relations between labour and capital in each country. The third part of the paper continues to show how the institutional paths have departed from their national spatio-temporal fix and have been re-embedded in the market-economy rationale of the neo-liberal project. The paper identifies a trend towards the ?equitisation? of pension funds as part of a broader process of marketisation of pensions as social right. The significance of the investment decision for pension occupational funds becomes crucial since funds are becoming major actors in the economic field. Their investment decision depends much on power relations between labour and capital ranging for example from social development (public houses, creation of jobs in the national environment) to the creation of profits through domestic and foreign financial markets. The paper concludes that pension occupational funds are re-embedded in a framework of choices, dominated increasingly more from the market economy rationale and the neo-liberal political project.

2017 - APSA Annual Meeting & Exhibition Pages: unavailable || Words: 14644 words || 
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2. Anzia, Sarah. "Pensions in the Trenches: How Cities Are Adapting to Rising Pension Costs" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the APSA Annual Meeting & Exhibition, TBA, San Francisco, CA, Aug 31, 2017 <Not Available>. 2019-09-18 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1245995_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: In at least a few cities, rising pension costs have forced local officials to make painful decisions about pension benefits, employee contributions, service provision, taxes, and debt. By some accounts, the events unfolding in these cities are part of a much larger trend (Kiewiet and McCubbins 2014). Others argue that while state and cities with the worst-managed pensions dominate the news cycle, most state and local governments are in fairly good condition (e.g., Munnell 2012). Which of these conclusions is closer to the mark? Are local governments across the country entering into what Kiewiet and McCubbins call the “New Fiscal Ice Age,” or are the dramatic rises in pension costs confined to a few cities?

Given the state of existing research, it is impossible to know. There is a literature on public employee pensions, but it is almost entirely a finance literature focused on just over 100 state-administered pension plans. While there are rich annual data on these state plans back to 2001, these plan-level data do not include detail on the pension costs of particular local governments. No existing datasets allow us to evaluate the extent to which city pension costs are actually rising, or the extent to which they are crowding out other expenditures.

For this paper, I am building a new dataset that will enable such an analysis. By collecting the annual financial statements of 219 cities for every year from 2005 to 2014, I am tracking how much each city spends on its public employees’ pensions and how that has changed over the last 10 years. This, alone, will be a significant contribution: it will allow me to establish what pension costs actually look like in American local governments, not just in the largest cities, and not just in the cities with the biggest problems, but instead in a large, diverse set of cities. But the dataset has another component as well—-one that is critical to an assessment of how pension costs are affecting local government. For each of the 219 cities, I have detailed annual data on city finances and employment from the Census of Governments. By combining the finance and employment data with the pension costs data, I will be able to answer a number of questions about how cities are coping with rising pension costs: Have cities pursued increases in revenue, and if so, in what forms? Have they reduced expenditures, and if so, in what functional areas? Are they hiring fewer employees, perhaps reducing the size of the police force or the fire department? And to what extent are cities coping with increased pension costs by taking on more debt, particularly by issuing pension obligation bonds? The second part of my analysis will allow me to draw conclusions about the consequences of rising pension costs, thereby completing the assessment of whether we are, in fact, experiencing a New Fiscal Ice Age—-an era in which local government provides less service at higher cost.

REFERENCES

Kiewiet, D.R., and M.D. McCubbins. 2014. “State and Local Government Finance: The New Fiscal Ice Age.” Annual Review of Political Science 17: 105-22.

Munnell, A.H. 2012. State and Local Pensions: What Now? Washington, DC: Brookings.

2007 - American Political Science Association Pages: 1 pages || Words: 1002 words || 
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3. Hennessy, Alexandra. "More rights, fewer pensions? The gendered consequences of European Union pension policies" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Hyatt Regency Chicago and the Sheraton Chicago Hotel and Towers, Chicago, IL, Aug 30, 2007 <Not Available>. 2019-09-18 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p211474_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: What are the gendered consequences of pension policies the European Union has mandated or strongly encouraged? Conventional wisdom would predict that European pension policies fit better with compound polities (i.e. Germany) than with unitary states (i.e. Britain). We find the opposite: Germany faces high costs of reform while the UK confronts with lower adjustment costs. Despite fundamental differences in the two pension regimes, EU pension policies have the same unintended consequences in both countries: the costs of implementing EU directives tend to discourage employers from offering occupational pension schemes in the first place, leaving women with more rights, but less social protection in old age.

2009 - SASE Annual Conference Pages: 5 pages || Words: 1027 words || 
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4. De Deken, Johan. "Pension Fund Governance and Stakeholding. Coordination Failures in the Control of Supplementary Pensions in Europe." Paper presented at the annual meeting of the SASE Annual Conference, Sciences Po, Paris, France, Jul 16, 2009 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-09-18 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p370746_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The spectacular development of the pension fund industry has exacerbated an important paradox of modern capitalism: the separation of ownership and control. Though funded pension schemes have significantly broadened share ownership, this paradoxically has boosted the leverage of traditional financial institutions, and increased economic power of a small group of fund managers. On the one hand, policy holders of pension funds increasingly are to bear individually the financial risks, and shoulder collectively the social and environmental consequences of the investment strategies of the funds to which they are affiliated. On the other hand, those policy holders are often denied to have any meaningful ‘voice’ in the management of those funds, while exercising ‘exit’ is a costly if not unavailable option.
The governance problems that accompanied the rise of pension fund capitalism can be modelled as a long chain of interrelated principal agent relationships, which dilutes the realisation of the interests of what are the ultimate principals: the pension plan participants and their sponsors. A closer examination, though, reveals that the agency relations involved are even more complex as the different stakeholders of pension funds may well have conflicting interests, and even the very same individual agent may have conflicting and incommensurable interests. Which interest in the end prevails can be expected to depend to a significant extent upon the national regulatory framework in place. The paper sets out how to investigate these regulatory differences, as well as the diversity of interests of the stakeholders of the new pension fund capitalism.

2011 - Eighteenth International Conference of the Council for European Studies Words: 129 words || 
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5. Manow, Philip. "Pension finance and monetary shocks – the German pension system in 1923/24 and 1949" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Eighteenth International Conference of the Council for European Studies, Various University Venues, Barcelona, Spain, <Not Available>. 2019-09-18 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p484595_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: The paper analyzes the fate of the German fully-funded pension system in the aftermath of WW I and WW II. The German old age insurance had been twice misused for war-financing on a grand scale, and twice lost its entire capital – in the hyperinflation of 1923/24 and through the currency reform of 1949.

The paper in particular deals with how political agents tried to cope with massive external shocks that existentially threatened the survival of this insurance scheme. It addresses the question why the pension insurance after 1924 went back to fully-funding although hyper-inflation had harmfully demonstrated the vulnerability of this financing mode vis-à-vis monetary shocks. The switch to pay-as-you go in Adenauer’s 1957 pension reform is interpreted as an instance of – rather belated – policy learning.

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