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2012 - Northeastern Political Science Association Words: 234 words || 
1. Trosky, Abram. "Of the People, by the People, and for other Peoples? Moral violence and the state in the political philosophy of Howard Zinn" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Northeastern Political Science Association, Omni Parker House, Boston, MA, Nov 15, 2012 <Not Available>. 2019-12-09 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Melding libertarian, communitarian, and cosmopolitan sentiments, Howard Zinn’s political philosophy tempers profound skepticism of governmental power with the sustaining hope that popular movements and the action of individual conscience will increase human freedom globally. The rare historian who disavowed objectivity in historical research and writing, he embraced the “bias” of humanism in both the selection and depiction of his subjects.
Zinn’s philosophy of historical change amalgamating Marxist, democratic socialist, and anarchist thought leaves questions regarding these principles’ appropriate application. As an activist, Zinn was adamant that we, the people, should do something. But because his prescriptivism comes primarily in the form of critique and resistance, it is difficult to give a Zinnian answer the basic political philosophic question, “What is to be done?”—How to positively build peace with the state in constant opposition?
This ambivalence is especially evident in the realm of international relations. Zinn was ardently anti-war but disavowed the pacifism and passivity of the political left, without saying much publically about the territory between. As observed in the Occupy and Arab social movements, Zinn remains an icon of both reformists who espouse nonviolent direct action, and revolutionaries who advocate meeting unjust force with force. My contention in this paper is that Zinn’s patchwork allegiances suggest a more nuanced understanding of the morality of violence and the mechanisms of historical change than regularly appreciated.

2016 - AAS-in-Asia, Kyoto Words: 241 words || 
2. Kamo, Tomoki. "The People’s Liberation Army in the Local People’s Congresses: What do the Delegates of the Local People’s Congresses Represent?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the AAS-in-Asia, Kyoto, Doshisha University, Kyoto, Japan, <Not Available>. 2019-12-09 <>
Publication Type: Panel Paper
Abstract: The main purpose of this research is to expose political functions of the delegates to the local people’s congresses in China. It focuses on the local people’s congress delegates selected from the circles of the People’s Liberations Army (PLA).
Earlier research on the delegates of the Chinese local people’s congresses focuses on this function of information gathering and reveals the delegates’ functions as agents, remonstrators, or representatives.
Using the data from the Jiangsu Province Yangzhou City People’s Congress from 1998 to 2015, this research examines how the information gathering function of the local people’s congresses has changed over the last decade or so. In particular, analyzing the contents of the bills submitted to the people’s congress by the delegates selected from the PLA circles, this research depicts how the PLA has gradually started expressing its demands through the people’s congresses over the last decade.
At the end of the 1990s, the PLA never submitted bills to the local peoples congresses. In regards to this reason, an individual familiar with the local people’s congresses responded that “even if the PLA had any demands it did not submit bills since it was able to solve these issues within its own system.” However, in the recent years, the PLA has been submitting its requests to the people’s congresses in the form of bills. This research explores the political meaning of the change in the relationship between the local people’s congresses and the PLA.

2007 - AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CRIMINOLOGY Pages: 20 pages || Words: 5808 words || 
3. West Crews, Angela. and Crews, Gordon. "Citizen and Officer Perceptions of Community Policing in Ghana: Policing of, by, and for the People, or just to the People?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CRIMINOLOGY, Atlanta Marriott Marquis, Atlanta, Georgia, Nov 14, 2007 Online <PDF>. 2019-12-09 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: This presentation presents initial results of an evaluation of citizen and officer perceptions of policing in Ghana. The Ghana Police Service (GPS) is attempting to transition from a para-militaristic philosophy to a more community-centered approach, developing a domestic violence unit in the past decade and, more recently, a community policing unit. Community policing philosophies, however, face unique challenges in Ghanaian society, such as a deep-rooted (and historically well-founded) mistrust of the police, and a culture with a well-established and trusted “traditional” system wherein matters are settled within communities and impacted by religion, spirituality, and mysticism.

This project used official reported crime data from each police region to determine patterns and trends in crime reporting and amenability to community policing efforts (e.g., robbery). We also collected perception and experience data from randomly selected households, and from groups of officers representing recruits, officers, and administrators at the district, division, and upper-administrative levels.

The purpose of this project was to determine potential barriers and facilitators toward the development and implementation of a community policing program in Ghana. With the aid of the National Organization of Black Law Enforcement Executives (NOBLE), and representatives from several local universities, we have completed the initial steps to begin developing community policing training for officers and for trainers in the GPS. We also hope that our efforts have increased the probability that citizens will report crimes to the police rather than settling criminal matters themselves.

2008 - International Communication Association Pages: 33 pages || Words: 8071 words || 
4. Smith, Rachel. and Rimal, Rajiv. "People Who Need People: The Impact of Social Capital on HIV-related Actions as Mediated by Self and Proxy Efficacies in Namibia" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, TBA, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, May 21, 2008 Online <>. 2019-12-09 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Social capital is associated with the enactment of positive health behaviors and health outcomes because it provides people a means to cope with life's stresses. This study asked whether, and to what extent, efficacy beliefs serve as the underlying mechanisms in the relationship between social capital and HIV-prevention behaviors. It provides a first test of the differential predictive ability of two types of efficacy recently explicated by Bandura (2001): personal efficacy and proxy efficacy. It also asks whether the two types of efficacy are differentially associated with HIV-prevention behaviors that are aligned on a continuum ranging from individual action (practicing monogamy) to collective action (use of HIV services). Hypotheses, tested with a sample of Namibians (N = 300), were mostly supported. The role of personal efficacy ranged from r = -.18 (p < .05) for use of HIV services to r = .26 (p < .05) for practicing monogamy.

2008 - NCA 94th Annual Convention Pages: unavailable || Words: 2333 words || 
5. Li, Dan. "By the People, for the People: Citizen Journalistic Practices on Wikinews" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the NCA 94th Annual Convention, TBA, San Diego, CA, Nov 20, 2008 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-12-09 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Using the London bombing reports on Wikinews as a case study, the study aims to offer some insights into the journalistic practice of citizen journalism. The core values of Wikinews provide a set of practical guidelines for news production. Prestigious news outlets are widely cited in Wikinews stories for concerns of credibility and legitimacy. Despite the non-hierarchical structure of Wikinews, different types of users tend to take different responsibilities. As anonymous users focus on details of news reporting, administrators are more concerned with legitimacy of articles and make efforts to ensure the content conforms to the core values.

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