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2012 - Northeastern Political Science Association Words: 234 words || 
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1. Trosky, Abram. "Of the People, by the People, and for other Peoples? Moral violence and the state in the political philosophy of Howard Zinn" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Northeastern Political Science Association, Omni Parker House, Boston, MA, Nov 15, 2012 <Not Available>. 2018-01-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p603312_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Melding libertarian, communitarian, and cosmopolitan sentiments, Howard Zinn’s political philosophy tempers profound skepticism of governmental power with the sustaining hope that popular movements and the action of individual conscience will increase human freedom globally. The rare historian who disavowed objectivity in historical research and writing, he embraced the “bias” of humanism in both the selection and depiction of his subjects.
Zinn’s philosophy of historical change amalgamating Marxist, democratic socialist, and anarchist thought leaves questions regarding these principles’ appropriate application. As an activist, Zinn was adamant that we, the people, should do something. But because his prescriptivism comes primarily in the form of critique and resistance, it is difficult to give a Zinnian answer the basic political philosophic question, “What is to be done?”—How to positively build peace with the state in constant opposition?
This ambivalence is especially evident in the realm of international relations. Zinn was ardently anti-war but disavowed the pacifism and passivity of the political left, without saying much publically about the territory between. As observed in the Occupy and Arab social movements, Zinn remains an icon of both reformists who espouse nonviolent direct action, and revolutionaries who advocate meeting unjust force with force. My contention in this paper is that Zinn’s patchwork allegiances suggest a more nuanced understanding of the morality of violence and the mechanisms of historical change than regularly appreciated.

2016 - AAS-in-Asia, Kyoto Words: 241 words || 
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2. Kamo, Tomoki. "The People’s Liberation Army in the Local People’s Congresses: What do the Delegates of the Local People’s Congresses Represent?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the AAS-in-Asia, Kyoto, Doshisha University, Kyoto, Japan, <Not Available>. 2018-01-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1099781_index.html>
Publication Type: Panel Paper
Abstract: The main purpose of this research is to expose political functions of the delegates to the local people’s congresses in China. It focuses on the local people’s congress delegates selected from the circles of the People’s Liberations Army (PLA).
Earlier research on the delegates of the Chinese local people’s congresses focuses on this function of information gathering and reveals the delegates’ functions as agents, remonstrators, or representatives.
Using the data from the Jiangsu Province Yangzhou City People’s Congress from 1998 to 2015, this research examines how the information gathering function of the local people’s congresses has changed over the last decade or so. In particular, analyzing the contents of the bills submitted to the people’s congress by the delegates selected from the PLA circles, this research depicts how the PLA has gradually started expressing its demands through the people’s congresses over the last decade.
At the end of the 1990s, the PLA never submitted bills to the local peoples congresses. In regards to this reason, an individual familiar with the local people’s congresses responded that “even if the PLA had any demands it did not submit bills since it was able to solve these issues within its own system.” However, in the recent years, the PLA has been submitting its requests to the people’s congresses in the form of bills. This research explores the political meaning of the change in the relationship between the local people’s congresses and the PLA.

2010 - NCA 96th Annual Convention Words: 210 words || 
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3. McCue, Margret. and Sweet, Derek. "'The People' as Rhetorical Interruption: Barack Obama and the Unfinished Hopes of an Imperfect People." Paper presented at the annual meeting of the NCA 96th Annual Convention, Hilton San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, <Not Available>. 2018-01-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p424052_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: This essay explores how Barack Obama’s oratory positions “the people” as a site of ongoing rhetorical negotiation regarding national identity, ideology, and potentiality. Indeed, we assert that Obama’s articulation of “the people” acts as a kind of ethical hail to the U.S. American citizenry; to be a member of the U.S. American community is to participate in the rhetorical accomplishing of national identity. This ethic of performed civic responsibility, a responsibility grounded in the realization that the constitution of the people occurs in the space of public deliberations and everyday interactions, highlights the dialogic nature of constitutive rhetoric. Like the subjects implicated in Charland’s consideration of constitutive rhetoric, “the people” of Obama’s rhetoric emerge as the choosers, deciders, and accomplishers of collaborative identity performance. Unlike Charland’s subjects, however, Obama’s rhetoric of imperfection and dissent positions “the people” as never fully constituted but always engaged in the act of constitution. The people, like the country they constitute, are flawed, never perfect, and always in the process of perfecting. This articulation of “the people” as never fully constituted, as always in the process of accomplishing or perfecting, leaves open the possibility of a hopeful future made manifest via the discourse and action of the people, by the people, and for the people.

2011 - International Communication Association Pages: unavailable || Words: 13490 words || 
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4. Dogruel, Leyla., Bowman, Nicholas. and Joeckel, Sven. "Elderly People and Morality in Virtual Worlds: A Cross-Cultural Analysis of Elderly People’s Morality in Interactive Media" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, TBA, Boston, MA, May 25, 2011 Online <PDF>. 2018-01-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p490459_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The current study examines the culpability of elderly people's innate moral foundations in two different countries (US, Germany) to see whether or not morality would influence decisions and subsequent enjoyment in an interactive media environment. Morality was assessed relying on Moral Foundations Theory (cf. Haidt & Joseph, 2007), which to this point had not been applied to cross-cultural research or interactive media. In an experimental design, participants (N = 78) were confronted with a computer simulation, where they could decide to violate or uphold morality. Data suggest that Germans and Americans differ in their moral foundations. For both, increased moral salience leads to a decrease in decisions to commit moral violations, while decreased moral salience leads to random decisions related to moral violations. Results for enjoyment were less clear. We conclude that elderly people at least partially transfer real-world moral foundations to virtual worlds.

2013 - American Studies Association Annual Meeting Words: 422 words || 
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5. Franco, Dean. "The People Were Becoming People: Economies of Sacrifice and the Durative Present in Tomas Rivera" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Studies Association Annual Meeting, Hilton Washington, Washington, DC, <Not Available>. 2018-01-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p656766_index.html>
Publication Type: Internal Paper
Abstract: This paper explores what Elizabeth Povinelli calls “economies of abandonment” and the recuperation of a “durative present” in Tomas Rivera’s landmark 1971 novel, And the Earth Did Not Part. Povinelli’s phrases refer to late liberalism’s dependence on economies of sacrifice, where someone, some people, or some nations of people must suffer unspeakable horror in order to sustain not only “the good life” of western democratic society, but also to sustain the very basis of liberal freedom to strive for the good life in the first place. According to Povinelli, the condition of our freedom is another’s sacrifice. Povinelli explains that because sacrifice is predicated on future gain, late liberalism has lost its sense of the present: “What is happening isn’t happening because it is what it will have been when the last man has his say” (28). Though Povinelli explores how we might imagine new economies of time founded on experiences of endurance, and this paper argues that Rivera’s novel advances a narrative economy of endurance. Rivera’s novel is about an unnamed boy, a member of a clan of Mexican migrant workers who follow the picking seasons across the US southwest, and who remain faithful to eschatological Catholicism, which comports with an economy of sacrifice—their present suffering ensures future gain—and which underwrites an economy of exploitative labor.

This paper will explore Rivera’s boy’s disengagement from his clan, beginning with the novel’s opening lines, “That year was lost to him.” In a rush of declarative sentences, we learn that the boy has lost his sense of time, his name, and thus identity; or, history, family, and social inscription, and the novel that follows is a non-linear series of events that more or less map out the boy’s inchoate “lost year.” The result, I will argue, is an alternative understanding of the durative present, which escapes the teleology of sacrifice. Crucial to the maintenance of this present is the reader’s participation in the reconstruction of the boy’s memory, culminating in a scene of ethical instruction where the reader learns that the story reconstructed in the act of reading is not identical to the boy’s story. The gap is a space of imagination which enables a reconstruction of community identity—“and the people were becoming people” is how the narrative puts it—with the reader invited to imagine the stakes of the transformation. This paper explores what transpires between “people” and “people,” emphasizing the role of the reader for sustaining processes of becoming wherein the present exists outside of the economic determinants of racial subjectivity.

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