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2009 - International Communication Association Pages: unavailable || Words: 8400 words || 
1. Hwang, Sungwook. "The Estimation of a Corporate Crisis Communication Based on Perceived CEO's Leadership, Perceived Severity of Threats, and Perceived Opposing Public's Size" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, Marriott, Chicago, IL, May 20, 2009 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-06-16 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Based on the contingency theory (Cancel, Mitrook, & Cameron, 1999), this study examined whether the perception of leadership as a powerful inner organizational factor influences the outside latent public’s assessment of an organization’s crisis communication. This study also looked at whether the perception of the severity of threats and the opposing public’s size as important external situational factors moderate the organizational stance and strategy assessment.
This study found the main effect of perceived leadership and the interaction effect of perceived leadership and perceived severity of threats on the participants’ estimation of organizational crisis responses. The results theoretically indicate that the contingent theoretical argument explaining the dynamics of organizational factors and situational factors in real public relations practices can also be applied when explaining the outside latent public’s thought patterns predicting an organizational stance and strategy. Based on the supported main findings and some unexpected variations, this study provides implications for the contingency theory of public relations.

2012 - ISPP 35th Annual Scientific Meeting Words: 231 words || 
2. Gundlach, Julia. and Zick, Andreas. "“May the best man win” – Actual and perceived ethnic competition as predictors of perceived ethnic threat and discrimination against immigrants" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ISPP 35th Annual Scientific Meeting, Mart Plaza, Chicago, IL, Jul 06, 2012 <Not Available>. 2019-06-16 <>
Publication Type: Paper (prepared oral presentation)
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Actual and perceived competition over scarce resources between (ethnic) groups and the perception of threat have been proven to be crucial components to the explanation of prejudice and discrimination. Although the concepts perceived competition and threat have often been used synonymously in the past, we argue that they have to be distinguished theoretically and empirically to contribute to the understanding of intergroup attitudes and behavior. Based on Ethnic Competition Theory (e.g. Coenders 2001; Scheepers et al. 2002) we developed a multilevel model for the explanation of anti-immigrant prejudice and discrimination against immigrants, including new selective measurements of perceived competition and threat. In an Extended Ethnic Competition Theory we assume that the effect of actual competition over scarce resources between ethnic groups (macro-level) on the perception of ethnic threat (micro-level) and ethnic discrimination is mediated by perceived ethnic competition (micro-level). Moreover, we expect that specific factors, i.e. the individual’s social position, ingroup identification and intergroup contact, affect the effects of actual and perceived ethnic competition on perceived threat and discrimination. Analyses of representative German data (n=808) confirm most of our assumptions regarding the micro-level of our model. Using SEM we can show among others that a) both constructs can be distinguished empirically and b) the effect of perceived competition on discriminatory intentions is fully mediated via perceived threat. Multilevel analyses testing the full model and theoretical implications will be presented and discussed.

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