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2011 - ISPP 34th Annual Scientific Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: 7961 words || 
1. Bruneau, Emile. and Saxe, Rebecca. "Israelis and Palestinians receive asymmetric benefits from perspective-taking and “perspective-giving” during online encounters" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ISPP 34th Annual Scientific Meeting, Bilgi University, Istanbul, Turkey, Jul 09, 2011 Online <PDF>. 2018-11-21 <>
Publication Type: Paper (prepared oral presentation)
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: A key question for the eventual resolution of intergroup conflict is what types of interventions can best erode the psychological barriers that exist between members of ‘enemy’ groups. In an asymmetric conflict situation, members of each group may respond systematically differently to intervention attempts. Specifically, while members of a majority or dominant group have been shown to benefit from “perspective-taking” (i.e., actively listening to the thoughts and feelings of the outgroup), members of a minority or perceived-disempowered group may benefit more from “perspective-giving” (i.e., feeling that the outgroup is listening and hearing). We surveyed opinions and attitudes of Palestinians (in Ramallah) and Israelis (in Tel Aviv) towards each other both before and after an unexpected online interaction with an outgroup member (an experimental confederate) through a video chat interface. In particular, we measured trust in the outgroup’s motives, empathy for outgroup suffering, and perception of outgroup bias. We found that when Israelis were required to actively listen to a Palestinian (perspective-taking), their attitudes towards Palestinians improved. If Israelis spoke while a Palestinian listened (perspective-giving), attitudes towards Palestinians did not change. By contrast, Palestinians' attitudes towards Israelis changed only when they engaged in perspective-giving, while an Israeli actively listened. Similar results were observed with two different groups that differed in power and who were separated by an ideological issue (immigration): Mexican immigrants and White Americans in Arizona. We found a similar group x intervention interaction: White American attitudes towards Mexican immigrants showed more positive change when they were perspective-taking, while Mexican immigrant attitudes towards White Americans showed more positive change while perspective-giving. In sum, members of different groups respond asymmetrically to intergroup dialogue, possibly due to differences in power between the groups. More generally, the asymmetric history of groups in conflict, including differences in power and social dominance, may be critical mediators of effective intervention programs.

2012 - 56th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society Words: 521 words || 
2. Pontzer, Mary Michael. "A review of study findings: American teachers' professional experiences and perspectives related to HIV/AIDS and the classroom, in comparative perspective" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 56th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society, Caribe Hilton, San Juan, Puerto Rico, Apr 22, 2012 <Not Available>. 2018-11-21 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This presentation will present major findings from a qualitative dissertation study conducted by the presenter. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore selected Georgian teachers’ professional experiences and perspectives related to HIV/AIDS and the classroom and to highlight similarities between the experiences and perspectives of participants and teachers in other countries, as reported by other researchers in scholarly literature. These professional experiences and perspectives included teaching about HIV/AIDS; instructing students living with or affected by HIV/AIDS; managing safety and confidentiality concerns; dealing with stigma and stereotypes associated with HIV/AIDS; grappling with personal feelings about death, dying, homosexuality; and teacher training issues related to HIV/AIDS. In addition to describing selected teachers’ professional experiences and perspectives on issues related to HIV/AIDS and the classroom, the study also highlighted broader challenges and struggles associated with the impact of the HIV/AIDS pandemic for teachers.

Using an eclectic theoretical framework that drew from critical theory, comparative perspective, and structural-functionalism, the researcher/presenter designed an emergent, flexible case study where each teacher-participant represented “a bounded case” (Merriam, 1998). Data collection involved one-on-one, semi-structured interviews with 11 participants from a range of backgrounds who were currently teaching or had recently taught in the K-12 system in the State of Georgia.

Data drawn from these interviews and accompanying field notes created before, during, and after interviews were compared with data from international scholarly literature reviewed by the researcher/presenter. I obtained comparative insights from research in South Africa, Namibia, Botswana, Uganda, Malawi, Mali, Lesotho, Nigeria, Mexico, Belize, Haiti, Great Britain, Tanzania, Vietnam, and Thailand. Including international insights was particularly important for this study because of the fact that HIV/AIDS is an international medical, educational, political, social, and cultural phenomenon. Given the nature of globalization and the vast amount of borrowing (Wiseman & Baker, 2005) that occurs between countries’ educational, health, and government policies, comparative insights on teachers’ professional experiences and perspectives related to HIV/AIDS in other countries were useful for better understanding the implications of the HIV/AIDS crisis for education in the context of my study and in general.

This study is significant because it provides insights for other educators, school personnel, or other interested parties about the impact of the HIV/AIDS pandemic for educators in the United States and abroad. It may be useful to understand selected teachers’ professional experiences and perspectives on issues related to HIV/AIDS in order to call attention to what is actually happening in classrooms in terms of the intersection of HIV/AIDS and education. Drawing upon the notion that there is strength in numbers, emphasizing shared experiences and perspectives on the issues may increase overall support for teachers given the similar realities they face in terms of HIV/AIDS in the classroom. Classroom teachers, in particular, may appreciate the fact that their experiences and perspectives are, in some cases, similar to other teachers around the world. Finally, this study highlights aspects of the education revolution, namely the ways in which educators--now more than ever-- must stay abreast of developments related to universal phenomena like HIV/AIDS since students everywhere are impacted by the pandemic.

2015 - International Communication Association 65th Annual Conference Pages: unavailable || Words: 10102 words || 
3. Mueller, Philipp. and Scherr, Sebastian. "A Matter of Perspective? How Self-Distancing and Perspective-Taking Influence First- and Third-Person Perceptions" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association 65th Annual Conference, Caribe Hilton, San Juan, Puerto Rico, May 21, 2015 Online <APPLICATION/SOFTGRID-PDF>. 2018-11-21 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Third- and first-person perceptions (TPPs/FPPs) are considered as biased judgments. We test whether self-distancing, i.e. adapting to a distanced position towards the self, and perspective-taking, i.e. thinking from another person’s point-of-view, decrease this bias. We apply this notion to the formation of TPPs and FPPs. In Study 1 (n = 790), we measure self-distancing and perspective-taking tendencies and find no support for a relationship with TPPs or FPPs. However, in Study 2 (n = 693) we manipulate both changes in perspective. We find no effects for a desirable media message, and, thus, on FPPs. For an undesirable stimulus, both self-distancing and perspective-taking boost perceived media influence on self. However, contrary to perspective-taking self-distancing also increases perceived influence on others. Thus, only perspective-taking absolutely reduces the bias in TPP compared to a control group. We discuss the mixed findings and their implications for the cognitive and motivational explanation of TPPs.

2017 - Association of Teacher Educators Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
4. Crawford, Caroline. "Shifting Professional Perspectives: Engaging in Team-Based Video Conferencing as an Multiple Emphasis Approach towards Analysis, Shifting Perspectives, Digital Age Training, and Professional Representations of Self" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association of Teacher Educators, Orlando Caribe Royale, Orlando, Florida, Feb 10, 2017 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2018-11-21 <>
Publication Type: Multiple Paper Format
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Engaging video conference efforts within graduate coursework, specifically within a team group approach, supports several professional areas of emphasis, with professional strengths and shifting understandings of self within a community.

2017 - Comparative and International Education Society CIES Annual Meeting Words: 845 words || 
5. Nishizaki, Megumi. "Research on Curriculum Revision Process in Myanmar: Compare Project Team Members’ Perspective and Teachers perspective" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Comparative and International Education Society CIES Annual Meeting, Sheraton Atlanta Downtown, Atlanta, Georgia, Mar 05, 2017 <Not Available>. 2018-11-21 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: In Myanmar, as the result of transformation from military leadership to civil society, the biggest education reform was started in early 2012. It is gradually demonstrating positive effects. However, Myanmar is still one of the world’s poorest countries. Its education system is not satisfied as many indicators still leg behind other ASEAN countries. According UNESCO, over 280 thousand children were out of primary school in 2014-15 although primary school education is compulsory. The net graduation ratio in primary school in 2014-15 was estimated to be 81.44%. The reasons why many children cannot enter the primary school and keep studying are mainly affordability and access (UNICEF, 2011). Moreover, Japan International Cooperate Agency points out that low quality of educational facilities and contents and inadequacy of teachers’ skill causes decreasing students’ motivation and their learning interests. It would be caused to increase retirement rate (JICA, 2013).

In order to improve quality of primary education, JICA has started and continued curriculum revision project since 2014, as ODA. The objective of this project is to create and introduce new textbooks and teachers’ guides for all of the primary school grades, from kindergarten to grade 5 with mainly the Child Centered Approach.

This paper identifies gaps in perception and needs between staffs in JICA’s curriculum revision project and public primary school teachers. There are three following research questions; 1) what kind of expectations and anxiety about the curriculum teachers hold; 2) what staffs who are engaged in JICA’s revision project have desire to this project; 3) how the new textbooks and teachers’ guides has been created. By comparing the results of the research question 1 and 2, it would be clarified the difference of consciousness between the JICA’s project staffs and public primary school teachers. Moreover, this paper examines whether there has the space room to reflect the opinions of teachers in the research question 3 .

So as to hear opinions directly from teachers and staffs in JICA’s project team, the author conducted a semi-structured interview with 15 members (4 different subjects and 2 professionals) and did 2 group interview, one of the group was 7 primary public school teachers working in Yangon, a urban area, and the other was 4 primary public school teachers working in Ayeyarwady, a rural area. At the same time, in order to clarify real curriculum revision process of this project, she did participant observation on JICA’s revision project team, observing a meeting on creating new Myanmar language textbook and teachers’ guide for grade 1 and 3 trial class observations.

Using qualitative data analysis on interview data, it was found that there are 2 groups of different opinion on the CCA in JICA’s project team. In curriculum revision project team, Japanese professionals and Myanmar staffs who also involved in the previous curriculum revision project implemented also by JICA put much value the CCA for learning to promote student’s understanding. On the other hand, Myanmar staffs participating in curriculum revision from this time began to change their attitudes for the CCA while they are participating in this project. Before participating this project, many of them worked as a public primary school teacher. As in the case with public primary school teachers who were interviewed on this research, it seems that they used authoritarian principle memorization method in their class and they appreciated it. They thought they do not need to change. Nevertheless, during working at this project with affected by professionals, they started getting understanding the importance of the CCA and felt the need to change themselves. In order to introduce and practice the new textbooks and teacher’s guides with grasping the meaning of the whole of new curriculum revision in primary school, all project members explained the need to change teachers.

In conclusion, it would be important to carefully pick up new members’ opinion in the process for creating new textbook and teacher’s guide. In spite that all of the project members told the importance to change the teachers, new staffs would learn the importance of the new curriculum by themselves and accept change they has made. They could lead a change process of other common primary school teachers. The originality of this study is to explain a change process that a common teacher became to set a vision and ideal education for both nation and children through understanding the meaning of curriculum revision.

Asian Development Bank (ADB) (2014). Myanmar: Unlocking the Potential. Manila: ADB.
Han, T. (2008). “Myanmar education: challenges, prospects and options”. Skidmore, M. and Wilson, T. eds., Dictatorship, Disorder and Decline in Myanmar. Australian National University E Press, pp.113-126.
Hayden, M., and Martin, R. (2013). “Recovery of the Education System in Myanmar.” Journal of International and Comparative Education, vol.2, Issue 2, pp.47-57.
Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) (2013). Final Report on Education Sector Information Collection and Verification Survey in Myanmar. Tokyo: JICA.
Sugiyama, R. (2013). National Curriculum Review in Myanmar. Technical Input for CESR Working Group. Tokyo: PADECO CO.Ltd.
United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) (2011). Multiple indicator cluster survey 2009-10. New York: UNICEF.
United Nations Education, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). Statistic Data. Available at [Accessed 1 October 2016].

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