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2014 - Southern Political Science Association Pages: unavailable || Words: 8079 words || 
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1. Li, Minjie. "The Photographer and the Child Survivors: An Ethical Debate on the Iconic Photograph of Sandy Hook Elementary School Shooting" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Southern Political Science Association, The Hyatt Regency New Orleans, New Orleans, Louisiana, Jan 09, 2014 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-08-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p699275_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Shannon Hicks’ photograph from Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting has been an iconic image etched in the public’s collective memory. This picture does show a a delicate tension between unease and safety. When well documenting the tragic event and causing people to think about the biggers issues, Hicks’ photograph also exposes some gray areas in the ethics and conducts in journalism that hasn’t yet been well discussed and clearly defined. These areas include how to visually cover tragic events involving child survivors who might be put at risk of PTSD (whether to publish), how to deal with the duty conflicts caused dual identity, and what the standard of an iconic picture is. They become the focuses of the ethical debates ignited by the publication of Hicks’ photo. This case study provides a categorization and analysis of the ethical debates among both journalism professionals and the general public. Also, the study makes contribution to specifying the discussion of journalism ethics and conducts on visual coverage of events involving child survivors. Implications of findings and journalistic suggestions are discussed.

2018 - ICA's 68th Annual Conference Words: 138 words || 
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2. Somerstein, Rachel. "Identifying Visual Silences: Using Surveys and Interviews to Identify the Photographs News Photographers Don't Take" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ICA's 68th Annual Conference, Hilton Prague, Prague, Czech Republic, <Not Available>. 2019-08-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1367292_index.html>
Publication Type: Session Paper
Abstract: Photographs are used as objective evidence in the courtroom and on the screen. They are used this way because they are indexical: they show what once was in front of the camera. Taken as indexes, as evidentiary documents, photographs shape the public conversation. These stories, in turn, drive the national conversation, as Max McCombs argued so convincingly in his work on agenda-setting: the news does not tell us what to think, but it does tell us what to think about.

But what of the photographs that, because of constraints and interferences, news photographers do not take? This project uses survey research and semi-structured interviews with news photographers to identify these images-not-taken. This work offers a different site in the process of news production from which to assess silences, before gatekeeping winnows the photographs that make it to press. 

2011 - International Communication Association Pages: unavailable || Words: 6873 words || 
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3. Buehner, Tara. "Norms and Conventions of User-Generated Photographic Content: A Photographic Analysis of First Lady Michelle Obama in Social Media" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, TBA, Boston, MA, May 25, 2011 Online <PDF>. 2019-08-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p488826_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This analysis of user-generated and amateur photographs of Michelle Obama as uploaded to social media site, Flickr, adds to the preliminary knowledge about the conventions and norms of creators of user-generated visual content. Specifically, this qualitative analysis assessed photos on Flickr to compare user-generated conventions with those of professional photographers. The results reflect and add to the literature in this burgeoning area of research. The most consistent themes found within the photographs were interactivity and self-expression. Based on the photographs analyzed, the photographers valued photos in which they had a connection to Michelle Obama in some way, whether through eye contact or personal appearances of the photographers in the photos themselves. Additionally, the photographer with the most Flickr experience was more likely than the others to follow professional photographic conventions.

2009 - American Studies Association Annual Meeting Words: 477 words || 
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4. Wiedemann, Susanne. "The Photographic Struggle Over Geography: Bodies and Spaces in USIA Photographs of Afghanistan and Iran" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Studies Association Annual Meeting, Renaissance Hotel, Washington D.C., Nov 05, 2009 <Not Available>. 2019-08-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p318871_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This paper critically examines photographs that document USIS cultural events and activities in Afghanistan and Iran, 1960-1965. The USIS used these photographs as illustrations of cultural events in official reports, as an assessment tool for evaluating programs, and as visual evidence of the activities’ effect on local audiences. Their meanings waver between anthropological spectacle (“the natives” encounter Western science and technology with wonder), VIP photo opportunities (to demonstrate good will and friendly binational relations by foregrounding the attendance of cultural events by the political, military, and intellectual elite), and the display of hegemonic power (modernization has arrived under U.S. flags in the Middle East). Combining the study of USIA photographs with that of USIA documents (both housed at NARA in College Park, MD) and recent scholarship on American photography, this paper applies Allan Sekula’s general question to the specific USIA-commissioned images: “How does photography serve to legitimate and normalize existing power relationships?” And what systems of power do these photographs sustain? How does U.S. support for “civic action projects” and “nation-building activities” in Iran, for example, complicate and expand the conference theme?
In his book American Exposures: Photography and Community in the Twentieth Century, Louis Kaplan points to the dual function of photography: to image and imagine community. Who constitutes “community” in these images: the subjects or the viewers? If “photographic images,” as Kaplan argues, “have externalized and realized how we imagine community,” then what can these photographs tell us about how Americans have understood themselves in relation to the depicted regions and people? How can we understand the photographed, mostly anonymous masses of people who are depicted viewing exhibits, watching films, and attending entertainment performances, as constructed communities?
Given that USIA written sources contextualize the photographs, do we inevitably tell a governmental agency’s story? What methodology enables us to recover the stories of the subjects, whose names we do not even know, without resisting “the constant temptation to let particular photographs stand for general events, or conversely, to let unidentified images stand for the experiences of particular individuals?” What exactly constitutes American photography, and to what extent do the USIA archival photographs taken in Iran and Afghanistan complicate or deny this nation-based classification? Is the designation “American” a matter of the surrounding institutional apparatus (the U.S. government who commissioned the photographs) and its political agendas, of the photographers themselves, of the subjects, or of the territory (sovereign states, outside of U.S. boundaries, yet symbolically marked with U.S. emblems)? Who do these photographs belong to?
Following Shawn Michelle Smith’s approach exemplified in Photography on the Color Line, I intend to render “the images readable and their cultural work intelligible” at this particular moment of their renewed popular representations as both invisible and unintelligible; to pull them not only out of archival boxes but out of what Smith calls the “archival margin.”

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