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2017 - The 13th International Congress of Qualitative Inquiry Words: 150 words || 
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1. Miller, Kyle. "A picture is worth a thousand words, but who should generate these pictures?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The 13th International Congress of Qualitative Inquiry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois, May 17, 2017 <Not Available>. 2019-05-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1240323_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Visual images elicit unique perspectives and responses from participants in research studies (Torre & Murphy, 2015). There are three main ways to integrate visual images into research studies: 1) gathering photographs from historical archives or popular media, 2) researcher-generated photographs, and 3) participant-generated photographs (Prosser & Loxley, 2008). Researchers make decisions as to which types of images best reflect the purpose of their study, as they weigh the advantages and disadvantages of each. This paper presentation will review the ethical issues, levels of empowerment, and data production linked to these three sources of photographs. Additionally, two completed photo-elicitation projects will be compared. One project relied upon participant-generated photographs and the other project utilized researcher-generated photographs. The presentation will involve the participation of audience members who will take part in a brief simulation of viewing and responding to different sources of images as they are compared and contrasted.

2013 - International Communication Association Pages: unavailable || Words: 8434 words || 
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2. McEntee, Rebecca., Yaschur, Carolyn. and Coleman, Renita. "If a Picture is Worth a Thousand Words, Are a Thousand Words Worth a Picture? Comparing the Effects of Vivid Writing and Photographs on Moral Judgment in Public Relations" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, Hilton Metropole Hotel, London, England, Jun 17, 2013 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-05-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p635851_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Abstract
This study used a controlled experiment to see if vivid writing – either alone or in combination with photographs – could improve moral judgment in the public relations domain. In fact, it was non-vivid writing by itself that was significantly better at raising the level of moral thinking. Possible explanations include information overload, the negativity of the photos, and participants’ loyalties. Other findings include a significant correlation between vivid writing and empathy, and that photographs significantly increased participants’ perceptions of the issues as morally important.

Funding for this study was provided by a grant from the Page Center for Public Communication at Pennsylvania State University.

2014 - International Communication Association 64th Annual Conference Words: 377 words || 
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3. Reissmann, Wolfgang. "Between Communicative Action and Picture-Related Practices: Young People’s Use of Pictures in Social Network Sites" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association 64th Annual Conference, Seattle Sheraton Hotel, Seattle, Washington, <Not Available>. 2019-05-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p715118_index.html>
Publication Type: Session Paper
Abstract: Communication in Social Network Sites is to a great extent communication by visuals. The normalization of image-based resources in mediatized interpersonal communication raises theoretical as well as methodological questions. From an action-theoretical and socio-phenomenological standpoint, communication is a knowledge-based, inner and outer process, through which people produce meaning (cf. Knoblauch, 2008; Krotz, 2008). In the past decades, action-oriented media and communication research amply demonstrated how people (“active audience”) integrate and interpret “media texts” (of all sorts) in their everyday lives. Under the rubric of a so-called “visual” or “pictorial turn,” theoretical positions that reflect theories of communicative action seem to have lost out to subtle processes that are below the line of “thought” or “intention”.

Against this background, the rising importance of pictures in daily interaction with significant others and audiences through Social Network Sites (e.g. Facebook) is an interesting and challenging research subject. The paper draws upon qualitative data taken from research with young people aged 13-17. First, the paper presents ambivalent findings. On the one hand, dramaturgical action in front of the camera, picture selection and picture-related practices (e.g. “showing”) are processes boys and girls “just do”. On the other hand, the production, the implementation and contextualization of pictures in the digital media environment, creates a (re-) confrontation with a cascade of one’s own and others’ looks, styles and life world representations, which produces awareness, assumptions and literacies concerning visual self-representation and picture editing practices.

Second, the paper argues for a theoretical understanding of young people’s picture use in Social Network Sites as communicative action that is intentional and conveys subjective meaning but is also has components that are less conscious yet still social and grounded in practical knowledge.
Hence, as subject of research, pictures and their use must be linked to action and practice theory (Couldry, 2012; Göttlich, 2006; Reckwitz, 2003, 2006; Raabe, 2008). In methodological terms, this means emphasizing the analysis of individual as well as socio-cultural based “(visual) styles” and picture-related practices of showing, commenting and rating. At the same time, we must avoid isolating pictures from their co-texts (“multimodality“) and from their concrete action contexts, and bear in mind that reflexivity is not a property of media artifacts (be they visual, verbal, or auditory), but a mode of reception and usage.

2011 - International Communication Association Words: 1 words || 
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4. Roosvall, Anna. "Aesthetics, Geo-Politics, and Ethics of World News Pictures: Narratives and Meta-Narratives of ‘Good Picture’ Slideshows" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, TBA, Boston, MA, <Not Available>. 2019-05-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p514656_index.html>
Publication Type: Session Paper

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