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2008 - WESTERN POLITICAL SCIENCE ASSOCIATION Pages: 23 pages || Words: 5269 words || 
1. Thomas, Jason. and Koontz, Tomas. "The Plan’s the Thing: Linking Collaborative Watershed Planning Processes to Plan Contents and Implementation" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the WESTERN POLITICAL SCIENCE ASSOCIATION, Manchester Hyatt, San Diego, California, Mar 20, 2008 Online <PDF>. 2019-10-20 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript

2015 - American Studies Association Annual Meeting Words: 499 words || 
2. Amato, Rebecca. "Failure to Plan or Planned Failure? Urban Planning and Gentrification on the Lower East Side" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Studies Association Annual Meeting, Sheraton Centre and Towers, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, <Not Available>. 2019-10-20 <>
Publication Type: Internal Paper
Abstract: Gentrification – or the multiple processes we label as “gentrification,” including the displacement of established working class and low-income communities of color by more affluent, often white newcomers and the neoliberalization of municipal policies toward land use – is the result of a failure of urban planning ideologies. That is to say that modern, traditional urban planning, which seeks objectives of “best use” and “efficiency” for land, as well as the protection of the public’s health, safety, and capacity for labor and democratic civic engagement, has failed to deliver on its promises. Rather than privileging the public need for access to decent housing, breathing space, clean air, public services such as schools and hospitals, and workplaces, planning has served to reinforce the same structures of power it originally sought to temper. Even the radical attempts of advocacy planners, who collaborate directly with community representatives to plan in line with community-identified needs and desires, fall short of altering the steamroll effect of the privatization of urban land. Not surprisingly, where planning has failed, the drive for capital accumulation has filled in the gap. Developers take the place of planners, while government assistance to development projects through tax incentives, zoning variances, and the discounted sale of city-owned property ensures that urban land use becomes a profit-making, rather than public-serving venture. As a symbol of the triumph of land speculation and privatization, gentrification demonstrates the impotence of urban planning as a means of protecting public interest.

To highlight this failure, this paper looks at the Lower East Side of Manhattan, an area that has undergone massive transformation as a result of gentrification, but has also been the target of urban planning for over a century. The paper examines two plans that were proposed by city planners in the 1930s and the 1960s and were aimed at revitalizing the impoverished, deteriorating environment of the Lower East Side. The first, proposed by the Lower East Side Planning Association in 1932 in consultation with planner Harland Bartholomew, attempted to rearrange the area’s streets, replace the working waterfront with one devoted to leisure, and replace decrepit tenements with modern, middle-class housing. The intention was to reconfigure the area as “a real walk-to-work district for employees in the financial district,” effectively replacing the low-income population with a more affluent one. The second plan, developed by advocacy planners Harry Schwartz and Peter Abeles in the late-1960s, envisioned a rehabilitated Lower East Side that not only acknowledged, but preserved, its reputation as a multiethnic, working-class neighborhood. In “Forging a Future for the Lower East Side,” they called for the city to invest in social planning (jobs, schools, health clinics), as well as small-scale housing development. Though signaling a desire to plan for the needs of the neighborhood’s existing population, Schwartz’s and Abeles’s proposal went no further than the shelves of the City Planning Commission. Such failures prompt us to ask whether urban planning requires revitalization in an era of neoliberalism, or whether planning is, by design, doomed to fail.

2016 - ASHE Annual Conference: Higher Education and the Public Good Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
3. Spencer, George. and Britton, Tolani. "Individualized Learning Plans: Do students who fail to plan, plan to fail?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ASHE Annual Conference: Higher Education and the Public Good, Hyatt Regency Columbus, Columbus, Ohio, Nov 09, 2016 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-10-20 <>
Publication Type: Research Paper
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: We propose to measure the effectiveness of using Individualized Leaning Plans (ILPs) by comparing the likelihood of entry into college for students who use ILPs, as compared to students who do not use this tool. We use data from the High School Longitudinal Study (HSLS) of 2009.

2011 - Oklahoma Research Day Words: 128 words || 
4. Fu, Jicheng. "Simple and Fast Strong Cyclic Planning for Fully-Observable Nondeterministic Planning Problems" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Oklahoma Research Day, Cameron University, Lawton, OK, Nov 04, 2011 <Not Available>. 2019-10-20 <>
Publication Type: Abstract
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: We address a difficult, yet under-investigated class of planning problems: fully-observable nondeter-ministic (FOND) planning problems with strong cyclic solutions. The difficulty of these strong cyclic FOND planning problems stems from the large size of the state space. Hence, to achieve efficient planning, a planner has to cope with the explosion in the size of the state space by planning along the directions that allow the goal to be reached quickly. A major challenge is: how would one know which states and search directions are relevant before the search for a solution has even begun? We first de-scribe an NDP-motivated strong cyclic algorithm that, without addressing the above challenge, can already outperform state-of-the-art FOND planners, and then extend this NDP-motivated planner with a novel heuristic that addresses the challenge.

2015 - Association for Asian Studies - Annual Conference Words: 248 words || 
5. Smith, Nick. "Planning at China’s Institutional Periphery: Negotiating the Power to Plan China’s Peri-Urban Villages" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Asian Studies - Annual Conference, Sheraton Hotel & Towers, Chicago, Illinois, <Not Available>. 2019-10-20 <>
Publication Type: Panel Paper
Abstract: Through policy initiatives such as urban-rural coordination and the national plan for a new form of urbanization, China has placed increasing emphasis on the rational planning of rural settlements. This has produced an emergent contradiction between the country’s urban planning system and its rural property rights regime. Whereas state ownership of urban land undergirds the authority of municipal planning bureaus in urban areas, the collective ownership of rural land complicates any effort to enforce this authority in rural areas. Various state actors, including municipalities, townships, state-owned enterprises, and villages have vied to exert control over rural planning. This competition is particularly fierce in peri-urban areas, where land values and rent gaps are highest.

Based on interviews, participant observation, and archival research conducted from 2011 to 2014, this paper investigates Hailong, a rapidly transforming village on the edge of Chongqing. Village leaders have resisted the municipality’s attempt to plan Hailong, sponsoring their own plan for the area. Negotiations between the municipal planning bureau and the local party branch have led to complex arrangements of property rights. Most notably, planning powers have been traded back and forth in exchange for the recognition of other property rights.

This case study reveals the rarely seen intra-state politics of Chinese planning, which emerges as a process of negotiation and coordination rather than regulation. These findings point to the need to revise China’s planning law to officially recognize the formation of planning coalitions—groupings of multiple local state actors that collaboratively organize the formulation of plans.

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