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2013 - MWERA Annual Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: 4577 words || 
1. Shan, Jiani. "Play Creativity and Play for Creativity: A Cross-culture Comparison of Preschool Children’s Play And Creativity" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the MWERA Annual Meeting, Hilton Orrington Hotel, Evanston, Illinois, Nov 06, 2013 Online <PDF>. 2019-08-20 <>
Publication Type: Paper Presentation
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: As a part of human’s nature and one of children’s rights, play is a powerful learning medium related to cognitive, language, social and emotional development(Bergen, 2009). Creativity, one of the most important components of play, has been seen by theorists, educators and teachers as an important predictor for a country’s future competitiveness. The importance of the relationship between play and creativity not only suggests that through play creativity can be measured, but through play creativity can be fostered.
The present study investigated and compared young children’s play patterns to see if there were significant differences in children’s development of creativity between Chinese and American cultures,. The initial hypothesis is supported that there is no significant difference in creativity between preschool children from the two countries.

2015 - SRCD Biennial Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
2. Goble, Priscilla., Martin, Carol., Hanish, Laura., Foster, Stacie., Eggum-Wilkens, Natalie. and Fabes, Richard. "Free Play or Guided Play? An Observational Study of Preschool Play Experiences" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the SRCD Biennial Meeting, Pennsylvania Convention Center and the Philadelphia Marriott Downtown Hotel, Philadelphia, PA, Mar 19, 2015 <Not Available>. 2019-08-20 <>
Publication Type: Individual Poster
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Early childhood educators recently have begun to draw distinctions between free play and guided play. Free play is voluntary and child-driven, such that children independently decide what to do and with whom. Guided play is also child-driven; however, during guided play, teachers guide children’s play in productive ways. Based on limited intervention research and theory, guided play is thought to be more beneficial for children’s learning (e.g., Tools of the Mind; Bodrova & Leong, 2009; Vygotsky, 1978). But little is known about whether this assumption is accurate.
In the few empirical studies examining free and guided play, researchers have failed to answer important basic questions about similarities and differences between these play contexts. For example, children’s experiences with different activities and peers are believed to provide variety in learning opportunities and foster different developmental skills (e.g., Bredekamp & Copple, 1997). To understand this variation, research examining how children’s experiences with activities and peers vary across free and guided play is needed. Armed with this type of knowledge, recommendations can be made how to effectively use free play and guided play.
The goal of our study was to gain a better understanding of the similarities and differences between free and guided play. We used naturalistic observations to explore how much time children spent in each type of play, and recorded the types and quality of experiences with activities and peers that occurred most frequently in free and guided play.
Method. Head Start preschoolers (N = 282, M = 52 months; 48% girls) were observed in 10-sec intervals several times per week during free and guided play over the fall and spring semesters of one academic year. A total of 64,600 observations (M = 229.20 per child) were collected. Several aspects of play were recorded, including: context (free play or guided play), types of activities (e.g., books, blocks), types of social interactions (dyadic versus group), quality of activity engagement (e.g., constructive, creative), and quality of peer interactions (e.g., parallel, social).
Results. Children spent the majority of their time engaged in play, with significantly more time spent in guided (35%) than in free play (26%; p < .001). Multivariate repeated measures analyses of variance revealed that during free play, compared to guided play, children played with a wider variety of activities and with a more diverse set of peers. Furthermore, play with activities and peers was of higher quality (i.e., more creative and social) during free play, compared to guided play (see Table 1 and 2).
Discussion. In this study, free play may seem more beneficial than guided play; however, recent research has shown that neither time spent in free play nor guided play was positively related to children’s academic, affective, or social skill development (Goble, in preparation). Thus, linking free play and guided play to child outcomes may be more complicated than simply understanding which context provides more of the experiences thought to be related to children’s learning and development. Directions for future research and implications for practice will be discussed.

2017 - ICA's 67th Annual Conference Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
3. Possler, Daniel., Klimmt, Christoph. and Kisser, Michael. "Like Gaming, But Without Playing? Audience Gratifications of Watching “Let’s Play” Videos" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ICA's 67th Annual Conference, Hilton San Diego Bayfront, San Diego, USA, May 25, 2017 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-08-20 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Let’s Plays, video content created by communicators who record a session of video game play and add spoken commentary, reach out to large and loyal audiences via online video platforms. The survey reported here explored audience gratifications of watching Let’s Plays and measured the importance of various information, entertainment, social interaction, and personal identity gratifications as well as economic advantages among N = 3530 viewers in Germany. Findings suggest that Let’s Plays are primarily used for entertainment purposes. Cluster analysis revealed, however, that there is substantial heterogeneity in viewers’ primary gratifications. Acquiring information on games and interacting within the community are important gratifications beyond entertainment for some of the six viewer types identified in the data. Moreover, viewers’ video game involvement and their gaming skills explain some of the variance in their primary gratifications. The discussion addresses the hybrid nature of Let’s Plays between games content and non-interactive online entertainment.

2017 - LRA Annual Conference Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
4. Flint, Tori. and Adams, Marietta. "“It’s like playing, but learning”: Supporting early literacy development through responsive play with wordless picturebooks" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the LRA Annual Conference, Tampa Marriott Waterside Hotel & Marina, Tampa, FL, Nov 29, 2017 Online <PDF>. 2019-08-20 <>
Publication Type: Individual Paper
Review Method: Peer Reviewed

2018 - ACJS 55th Annual Meeting Words: 99 words || 
5. Rivers, Tiffany. and Perrone, Dina. ""We Not Playing Checkers, We Playing Chess": Explaining Urban America and African American Gun Violence" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ACJS 55th Annual Meeting, Hilton New Orleans Riverside, New Orleans, LA, Feb 13, 2018 <Not Available>. 2019-08-20 <>
Publication Type: Research Showcase
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Based on semi-structured interviews with eight African American men obtained via snowball sampling, this presentation describes how guns were introduced, obtained, used or not used, loved, and despised. For most, guns were introduced and obtained during early childhood. Both individual factors, such as the need for instant gratification and social factors, like economic instability, influenced these men to participate in the street economy. Once involved, the dangers of their community and the ambiguity of their safety and survival became more apparent. This provoked gun carrying and usage. Given these and other findings, implications for gun prevention policies are discussed.

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