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2013 - MWERA Annual Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: 4577 words || 
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1. Shan, Jiani. "Play Creativity and Play for Creativity: A Cross-culture Comparison of Preschool Children’s Play And Creativity" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the MWERA Annual Meeting, Hilton Orrington Hotel, Evanston, Illinois, Nov 06, 2013 Online <PDF>. 2020-02-24 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p675561_index.html>
Publication Type: Paper Presentation
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: As a part of human’s nature and one of children’s rights, play is a powerful learning medium related to cognitive, language, social and emotional development(Bergen, 2009). Creativity, one of the most important components of play, has been seen by theorists, educators and teachers as an important predictor for a country’s future competitiveness. The importance of the relationship between play and creativity not only suggests that through play creativity can be measured, but through play creativity can be fostered.
The present study investigated and compared young children’s play patterns to see if there were significant differences in children’s development of creativity between Chinese and American cultures,. The initial hypothesis is supported that there is no significant difference in creativity between preschool children from the two countries.

2015 - SRCD Biennial Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
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2. Goble, Priscilla., Martin, Carol., Hanish, Laura., Foster, Stacie., Eggum-Wilkens, Natalie. and Fabes, Richard. "Free Play or Guided Play? An Observational Study of Preschool Play Experiences" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the SRCD Biennial Meeting, Pennsylvania Convention Center and the Philadelphia Marriott Downtown Hotel, Philadelphia, PA, Mar 19, 2015 <Not Available>. 2020-02-24 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p955399_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Poster
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Early childhood educators recently have begun to draw distinctions between free play and guided play. Free play is voluntary and child-driven, such that children independently decide what to do and with whom. Guided play is also child-driven; however, during guided play, teachers guide children’s play in productive ways. Based on limited intervention research and theory, guided play is thought to be more beneficial for children’s learning (e.g., Tools of the Mind; Bodrova & Leong, 2009; Vygotsky, 1978). But little is known about whether this assumption is accurate.
In the few empirical studies examining free and guided play, researchers have failed to answer important basic questions about similarities and differences between these play contexts. For example, children’s experiences with different activities and peers are believed to provide variety in learning opportunities and foster different developmental skills (e.g., Bredekamp & Copple, 1997). To understand this variation, research examining how children’s experiences with activities and peers vary across free and guided play is needed. Armed with this type of knowledge, recommendations can be made how to effectively use free play and guided play.
The goal of our study was to gain a better understanding of the similarities and differences between free and guided play. We used naturalistic observations to explore how much time children spent in each type of play, and recorded the types and quality of experiences with activities and peers that occurred most frequently in free and guided play.
Method. Head Start preschoolers (N = 282, M = 52 months; 48% girls) were observed in 10-sec intervals several times per week during free and guided play over the fall and spring semesters of one academic year. A total of 64,600 observations (M = 229.20 per child) were collected. Several aspects of play were recorded, including: context (free play or guided play), types of activities (e.g., books, blocks), types of social interactions (dyadic versus group), quality of activity engagement (e.g., constructive, creative), and quality of peer interactions (e.g., parallel, social).
Results. Children spent the majority of their time engaged in play, with significantly more time spent in guided (35%) than in free play (26%; p < .001). Multivariate repeated measures analyses of variance revealed that during free play, compared to guided play, children played with a wider variety of activities and with a more diverse set of peers. Furthermore, play with activities and peers was of higher quality (i.e., more creative and social) during free play, compared to guided play (see Table 1 and 2).
Discussion. In this study, free play may seem more beneficial than guided play; however, recent research has shown that neither time spent in free play nor guided play was positively related to children’s academic, affective, or social skill development (Goble, in preparation). Thus, linking free play and guided play to child outcomes may be more complicated than simply understanding which context provides more of the experiences thought to be related to children’s learning and development. Directions for future research and implications for practice will be discussed.

2011 - International Communication Association Pages: unavailable || Words: 10904 words || 
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3. Johnson, Robin. "Play Determined Men: Reproducing Masculine Work and Play in the Video Game Industry" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, TBA, Boston, MA, May 25, 2011 Online <BINARY/OCTET-STREAM>. 2020-02-24 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p489325_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: In the video game industry, there is a reproduction of male game employees from ranks of hardcore game players, who reproduce the kinds of militarized, masculine games they grew up playing. This article focuses on the reproduction of a masculine culture in the production of commercial games. Using in-depth interviews of game workers and ethnographic research of a video game production studio, I argue that technical masculinity is inculcated in video game workers through early socialization structures. The game worker’s disposition is the result of the acquisition of structures relating to the family socialization dynamics, the sexual division of labor, and play. Game workers’ masculinity in turn informs workplace rituals in the production of video games. Studio and employee rituals transform work spaces into masculine enclaves and provide spaces for the performance of masculinity. Ultimately, such a strongly masculine workplace and culture reinforces androcentrism and makes entry into the video game industry and retention problematic for women.

2010 - Children and Childhoods Research Symposium Words: 252 words || 
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4. Zuvela, Christine. and Gibson, Frances. "The Function of Hosptial Play Therapy and the Role of Play Therapists" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Children and Childhoods Research Symposium, Institute of Early Childhood, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia, Sep 24, 2010 <Not Available>. 2020-02-24 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p439549_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Hospital play therapy is used to help children cope with hospitalisation. However, little is known about the function of hospital play therapy and the role of a play therapist, in particular, from the perspective of parents of children and health care providers. This study aimed to examine play therapist, parent, and health care professional perceptions of the function and role of hospital play therapy and the play therapist.
Twenty six participants comprising parents, health care professionals and play therapists were recruited and completed a questionnaire covering exposure to play therapy, perceptions of the function of play therapy, the education, training and role of play therapists, and the importance of play therapy. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 9 participants to gain a more in-depth understanding drawn from their experiences and observations of play therapy.
The findings revealed that hospital play therapy was seen to have several primary functions including helping children cope, preparing and distracting children from medical procedures and to occupy or entertain them. Some of these functions were viewed as core roles of the therapist, including, preparing children for medical procedures and distracting them. However developing a strong trustworthy relationship with children was also viewed a key and unique aspect of the therapist’s role. Participants valued hospital play therapy as equal in importance to other medical, allied health and support services provided to children in hospital. Finally, formal training in early childhood education and child development were seen to be the primary education and training required to be a play therapist.

2015 - International Communication Association 65th Annual Conference Pages: unavailable || Words: 10383 words || 
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5. Kochigina, Anna. "Let’s Play! An Exploration of Public Relations Through the Lens of a Play Theory" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association 65th Annual Conference, Caribe Hilton, San Juan, Puerto Rico, May 21, 2015 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2020-02-24 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p985519_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Huizinga once wrote, “Play is a function of the living” (1955, p. 7). The scholar considered culture as rooted in play and play as a context to study culture. The present paper is the first exploration of public relations through the lens of the play theory. Comparing the theory of play with co-creational theories of public relations, the researcher found many similarities between the two areas of scholarship. In this article, the researcher argues that, by considering the ideas of the play theory, public relations scholars can better understand how people interact, create meanings, and agree on the rules of the interaction. Having analyzed the concepts of play in public relations, the researcher proposed several ideas for future public relations scholars to consider. The paper provides with a model of co-creation of meaning that helps to recognize the role of public relations in social construction of communication, meaning, and relationships.

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