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2016 - 87th SPSA Annual Conference Pages: unavailable || Words: 9576 words || 
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1. Neiman, Jayme. and Gonzalez, Frank. "Polarized Words in Polarized Times? Value-Based Language of Political Elites in a Polarized Government" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 87th SPSA Annual Conference, Caribe Hilton, San Juan, Puerto Rico, Jan 06, 2016 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2018-11-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1080049_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Life in politically polarized times is thought to be wrought with name-calling, incivility, and downright vilification between members of opposing parties, which may corrode certain democratic processes (Mutz and Reeves 2005; Wolf, Strachan, and Shea 2012; but see Brooks and Geer 2007). Indeed, uncivil discourse can be found in variety of forms across a wide range of media formats (Sobieraj and Berry 2011). However, it is unknown whether the type of language being used in polarized times differs fundamentally between elites of opposing political orientations. A wealth of literature suggests Republicans and Democrats rely on different values, which should be reflected in language. We examine whether differences in value-based language emerge when government is more versus less polarized. Four models of how values should differ between Republicans and Democrats are tested: Lakoff’s model of Parenting Styles (Lakoff 2002), Moral Foundations Theory (Graham, Haidt, and Nosek 2009), Motivated Social Cognition (Jost et al. 2003), and Basic Personal Values (Caprara et al. 2006). We conduct a longitudinal text analysis of transcripts of Democratic and Republican elites across a range of media outlets (including State of the Union addresses, debates, congressional hearings, nomination acceptance speeches, Meet the Press appearances, and Fox News Sunday appearances) spanning multiple decades (1990-2012) to examine the degree to which elite polarization is reflected in the values elites rely on in their language. Results are discussed in terms of the existence of value-based language differences among elites and the implications for how political polarization manifests in the U.S.

2011 - Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication Pages: unavailable || Words: 9253 words || 
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2. Yang, JungHwan. and Rojas, Hernando. "Exploring Political Polarization: Polarized Attitudes or Polarized Perceptions?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication, Renaissance Grand & Suites Hotel, St. Louis, MO, Aug 10, 2011 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2018-11-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p520411_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This study first examined multiple dimensions of political polarization by differentiating between the affective and cognitive components of attitude polarization and by introducing new concept of issue perception polarization. Then we identified factors that predict each aspect of polarization. In doing this, we constructed several measures that capture polarization at the group and individual level. Based on national survey data that conducted in Colombia in 2010, we found that the affective and cognitive attitude polarization and issue perception polarization showed different patterns: issue perception and cognitive attitude are highly polarized, whereas affective attitude polarization is not that severe. Also the predictors of each dimension of the polarization were different: the impact of media use was found only for affective attitude polarization; the extreme political ideology affects affective attitude polarization; and the extreme issue perception affects cognitive attitude polarization and issue perception polarization. The findings suggest that political polarization is consisted of multiple distinctive dimensions, which are differently influenced by diverse predictors. Further implications in polarization research were discussed.

2011 - International Studies Association Annual Conference "Global Governance: Political Authority in Transition" Pages: 48 pages || Words: 13639 words || 
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3. Parent, Joseph. and Bafumi, Joseph. "International Polarity and America's Polarization" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association Annual Conference "Global Governance: Political Authority in Transition", Le Centre Sheraton Montreal Hotel, MONTREAL, QUEBEC, CANADA, Mar 16, 2011 Online <PDF>. 2018-11-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p498661_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: There is a growing consensus that the United States is undergoing a period of political polarization, particularly among elites. The causes of this polarization remain underresearched. We argue that America’s polarization is caused in large part by lack of external threat. To demonstrate the argument, this paper analyzes polarization and threat quantitatively and qualitatively from 1945 to 2005. A key finding is that greater relative power on the world stage increases polarization and some of its correlates. The argument also gauges the extent of international influence on domestic polarization, makes novel predictions on when and why polarization will end, and discusses the implications for great power politics and American foreign policy.

2016 - 87th SPSA Annual Conference Words: 96 words || 
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4. Liu, Naijia. "Visualizing the American Electorate’s Political Polarization: Does it Mirror the Polarization in Washington?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 87th SPSA Annual Conference, Caribe Hilton, San Juan, Puerto Rico, Jan 07, 2016 <Not Available>. 2018-11-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1044107_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: In this study, we examine the American political polarization process by visualizing data from the ANES (American National Election Study) longitudinal data set. In this paper, we examine changes in American public’s party identification, political preferences, and opinions towards several prominent interest groups in American society using data visualization techniques. The purpose of the paper is to test the existence of political polarization within the American electorate and discuss the characteristics of it. We determine that, compared to Americans in the late 1950s and early 1960s, the American electorate is comparatively much less polarized.

sample visualization: http://holdind.github.io/2015-05-11-DaneHolding-NaijiaLiu-Figure1.html

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