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2011 - Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication Pages: unavailable || Words: 9253 words || 
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1. Yang, JungHwan. and Rojas, Hernando. "Exploring Political Polarization: Polarized Attitudes or Polarized Perceptions?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication, Renaissance Grand & Suites Hotel, St. Louis, MO, Aug 10, 2011 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2018-07-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p520411_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This study first examined multiple dimensions of political polarization by differentiating between the affective and cognitive components of attitude polarization and by introducing new concept of issue perception polarization. Then we identified factors that predict each aspect of polarization. In doing this, we constructed several measures that capture polarization at the group and individual level. Based on national survey data that conducted in Colombia in 2010, we found that the affective and cognitive attitude polarization and issue perception polarization showed different patterns: issue perception and cognitive attitude are highly polarized, whereas affective attitude polarization is not that severe. Also the predictors of each dimension of the polarization were different: the impact of media use was found only for affective attitude polarization; the extreme political ideology affects affective attitude polarization; and the extreme issue perception affects cognitive attitude polarization and issue perception polarization. The findings suggest that political polarization is consisted of multiple distinctive dimensions, which are differently influenced by diverse predictors. Further implications in polarization research were discussed.

2016 - 87th SPSA Annual Conference Pages: unavailable || Words: 9576 words || 
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2. Neiman, Jayme. and Gonzalez, Frank. "Polarized Words in Polarized Times? Value-Based Language of Political Elites in a Polarized Government" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 87th SPSA Annual Conference, Caribe Hilton, San Juan, Puerto Rico, Jan 06, 2016 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2018-07-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1080049_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Life in politically polarized times is thought to be wrought with name-calling, incivility, and downright vilification between members of opposing parties, which may corrode certain democratic processes (Mutz and Reeves 2005; Wolf, Strachan, and Shea 2012; but see Brooks and Geer 2007). Indeed, uncivil discourse can be found in variety of forms across a wide range of media formats (Sobieraj and Berry 2011). However, it is unknown whether the type of language being used in polarized times differs fundamentally between elites of opposing political orientations. A wealth of literature suggests Republicans and Democrats rely on different values, which should be reflected in language. We examine whether differences in value-based language emerge when government is more versus less polarized. Four models of how values should differ between Republicans and Democrats are tested: Lakoff’s model of Parenting Styles (Lakoff 2002), Moral Foundations Theory (Graham, Haidt, and Nosek 2009), Motivated Social Cognition (Jost et al. 2003), and Basic Personal Values (Caprara et al. 2006). We conduct a longitudinal text analysis of transcripts of Democratic and Republican elites across a range of media outlets (including State of the Union addresses, debates, congressional hearings, nomination acceptance speeches, Meet the Press appearances, and Fox News Sunday appearances) spanning multiple decades (1990-2012) to examine the degree to which elite polarization is reflected in the values elites rely on in their language. Results are discussed in terms of the existence of value-based language differences among elites and the implications for how political polarization manifests in the U.S.

2016 - 87th SPSA Annual Conference Words: 96 words || 
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3. Liu, Naijia. "Visualizing the American Electorate’s Political Polarization: Does it Mirror the Polarization in Washington?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 87th SPSA Annual Conference, Caribe Hilton, San Juan, Puerto Rico, Jan 07, 2016 <Not Available>. 2018-07-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1044107_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: In this study, we examine the American political polarization process by visualizing data from the ANES (American National Election Study) longitudinal data set. In this paper, we examine changes in American public’s party identification, political preferences, and opinions towards several prominent interest groups in American society using data visualization techniques. The purpose of the paper is to test the existence of political polarization within the American electorate and discuss the characteristics of it. We determine that, compared to Americans in the late 1950s and early 1960s, the American electorate is comparatively much less polarized.

sample visualization: http://holdind.github.io/2015-05-11-DaneHolding-NaijiaLiu-Figure1.html

2016 - American Political Science Association Annual Meeting Words: 208 words || 
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4. Kubo, Hiroki. "Does Intra-District Polarization Cause Party Polarization in Congress?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association Annual Meeting, TBA, Philadelphia, PA, Sep 01, 2016 <Not Available>. 2018-07-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1115036_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Does intra-district ideological heterogeneity cause party polarization in Congress? Instead of analyzing elite polarization and mass polarization separately, this study investigates the role of representational linkages between legislators and voters at the congressional district level. I elaborate on my theoretical argument about geographical diversity, district characteristics, and candidate policy positioning, emphasizing the role of geographical ideological distribution and intra-district heterogeneity. Specially, this study argues that ideological distributions of district level voters’ preferences (the median voter's ideology and ideological heterogeneity) affect congressional candidates' policy position strategies during election by using the Cooperative Congressional Election Study (CCES). To demonstrate this, several scaling methods are used in combination. First, I utilize Bayesian Aldrich-McKelvey (BAM) Scaling in order to recover common ideological space and to estimate the ideological positions of all congressional candidates from voters' perceptual data, which are comparable across congressional districts. Second, item response theory (IRT) analysis on policy issues enables the recovery of constituencies' latent ideological dimensions. Third, representative values on district voters' ideological distributions are obtained in order to identify the characteristics of the geographic distribution of constituency preferences. Empirical results reveal that district ideological heterogeneity interacted with district median ideology, leading to ideologically extreme positioning and suggesting that the uncertainty regarding the voters' ideological preferences heightens polarization.

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