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2008 - ISA's 49th ANNUAL CONVENTION, BRIDGING MULTIPLE DIVIDES Pages: 27 pages || Words: 10110 words || 
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1. Milward, Marie. "Taking on the European Challenge to Foreign Policy: a Foreign Policy Analysis of the EU Foreign Policy in the Democratic Republic of Congo" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ISA's 49th ANNUAL CONVENTION, BRIDGING MULTIPLE DIVIDES, Hilton San Francisco, SAN FRANCISCO, CA, USA, Mar 26, 2008 Online <PDF>. 2019-03-21 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p252126_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Is there such a thing as Common European Foreign Policy? In evaluating European Foreign Policy (EFP), it is important to take into account that EFP is made by the institutions of the EU as well as the institutions of the member states. Recent conceptualizations of foreign policy analysis have focused on actor-specific theories, are best suited for explaining EFP. This paper analyzes the case of the European democracy promotion policies toward the Democratic Republic of Congo. Since the beginning of the 1990s the African Great Lakes region has been the target of continued involvement on the part of the European Union as a whole as well as some of its member states. Drawing on James Rosenau's framework, this paper seeks to demonstrate how and when different actors influence the initiation and implementation phases of foreign policy making. Within the analysis of each stage, this paper mainly focuses on comparing the respective role and influence of the institutions of the member states as well as the institutions of the EU. The analysis of the case presented in this paper illustrates the extent to which each of these actors is relevant to the making of foreign policy and whether or not it is justified to talk about a Common European Foreign Policy and what we mean by this.

2010 - Seventeenth International Conference of the Council for European Studies Pages: unavailable || Words: 6763 words || 
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2. Werkman, Renate. and Breeman, Gerard. "Resilience of National Policy Agendas to EU Policy: The Common Agricultural Policy" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Seventeenth International Conference of the Council for European Studies, Grand Plaza, Montreal, Canada, Online <PDF>. 2019-03-21 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p399711_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: The national policy agenda on EU related issues is usually dominated by implementation problems of EU directives. Central questions are: how should an EU-directive be interpreted legally and what are the requirements to conform national legislation to the EU directive? Recent EU studies however focus more on political responses and feedback processes and not only on the technical matters of EU policies. This calls for additional agenda-setting analysis, because the political venues that are available to change EU policies and the (re)framing of EU policy images differ substantially from those on national level. We hypothesize that national agendas are more resilient to EU policies than to domestic issues. This resilience creates new mismatches between national and EU policies, which will dominate the agendas on both national and EU level. In this paper we analyze such a mismatch. We describe how the shifting beliefs about the Common Agriculture Policy (CAP) on EU level triggered resistance on domestic level, showing a high level of ‘agenda-resiliency’.

The CAP has been subject to continuous change. The most recent initiative to reform is the ‘Health Check’ (2008). It entails among others that the link between direct payments to farmers will be limited and reduced. The money that is saved will be used to induce more fundamental changes of the CAP’s traditional values towards other societal values: such as climate change, biofuels, and biodiversity. But in the Netherlands, these new values are resisted, even though the Ministry of Agriculture seems to have embraced them. Traditional values prevail. The central argument in this paper is that domestic policy images hinder the implementation of new EU policies because these are dominated by fixed groups of insiders who hold ‘older’, norms. These ‘traditional’ actors know how the domestic agricultural venue works and how to influence them. By lobbying to the right representatives, they manage to sustain their own policy image time and again, making it impossible to move towards a new norm-set.

2018 - 89th Annual SPSA Conference Words: 179 words || 
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3. Zhu, Ling. and Clark, Jennifer. "State Immigration Policy, Policy Feedback, and Attitudes toward Immigrants: Rethinking the Policy-Opinion Nexus" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 89th Annual SPSA Conference, Hyatt Regency, New Orleans, LA, Jan 04, 2018 <Not Available>. 2019-03-21 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1343518_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Public policy scholars have a long-standing interest in exploring the determinants of citizens’ policy preferences in critical issue areas. Emerging from the extensive mass preference literature are two theoretical traditions: the political economy approach that focuses on economic self-interests, and the political psychology approach that is grounded in social identity theories and cultural explanations. Most of the existing research, however, ignores the role that existing policies play in influencing preference formation. In this paper, we reconsider the policy-opinion nexus by asking how public policies, once adopted, can affect individuals’ attitudes in the same policy area. Situating our analysis in the empirical context of state-level immigration politics, we use originally collected survey data to explore the link between states’ immigration policies and mass attitudes towards immigration and immigrants. We find consistent evidence that existing state immigration policies produce salient “feedback” effects on mass attitudes. Those who live in states with more inclusive immigration policies tend to have more positive views towards immigration and immigrants. Our findings suggest existing policy contexts are important macro-level factors that matter for mass attitude formation.

2004 - International Communication Association Pages: 29 pages || Words: 8693 words || 
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4. Riggs, Karen. "The Digital Divide’s Gray Fault Line: Aging Workers, Technology, and Policy The Digital Divide’s Gray Fault Line: Aging Workers, Technology, and Policy The Digital Divide's Gray Fault Line: Aging Workers, Technology, and Policy" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, New Orleans Sheraton, New Orleans, LA, May 27, 2004 Online <.PDF>. 2019-03-21 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p112421_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Drawing on the author's ethnographic and textual analysis research over a five-year period in the United States, the paper observes that older generations of workers are getting used to the new models of technology-driven communication but may not feel "at home" in them. The author suggests steps for policy makers to stimulate and reward older workers, whose roles in the "new work" are both vital and threatened. Proceeding from data suggesting that work status often drives home computer and Internet competencies and usage in the lives of Americans over 50, the author acknowledges that the advancing age of Baby Boomers will cause some generational differences in competency and usage to disappear, but cultural differences among elders will persist. Effective public policy for curing the Digital Divide must include attention to older Americans on the margins, many of whom are single women, racial minorities, and residents of central-city or rural areas, the author claims. Recommendations include:
1. Tailor retirement systems for individual differences.
2. Make employment sectors elder friendly.
3. Make the educational system non-discriminatory.
4. Eliminate ageist practices inside the academy.
5. Strengthen policies to deter age discrimination by employers.
6. Encourage inclusive images of older workers.
7. Stop retrofitting facilities to "shoehorn" in disabled (often older) workers.
8. Encourage intergenerational learning communities.
9. Pursue age studies and intergenerational research.
The author concludes that citizens must assume a collective responsibility for re-creating social environments that will accommodate unprecedented complexities of intergenerational living in today's world.

2008 - ISA's 49th ANNUAL CONVENTION, BRIDGING MULTIPLE DIVIDES Words: 233 words || 
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5. Haug, Constanze., Massey, Eric. and Huitema, Dave. "Bridging the Gap between Science and Policy: The Role of Experiments and Policy Games in Environmental Policy" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ISA's 49th ANNUAL CONVENTION, BRIDGING MULTIPLE DIVIDES, Hilton San Francisco, SAN FRANCISCO, CA, USA, Mar 26, 2008 <Not Available>. 2019-03-21 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p251684_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Environmental problems are manifold and differ in nature, scale, and complexity. Learning which policies to employ to address them, or policy learning, often consists of simply ‘muddling through’, moving forward on a trial-and-error basis. Policy experiments are one particular way to circumvent learning by trial-and-error. Like simulation games experiments may offer a promising alternative. Experiments and games let participants explore the consequences of (future) decisions and institutional designs in a structured and safe environment. Both methods may also allow for ‘bridging the gap’ to integrate insights from various methods and approaches, adding an interactive and experiential element to the quantitative or conceptual insights gained from modeling and/or scenario exercises. This paper explores to which extent and how experiments and policy simulation games can be used to enhance policy learning. In the first part of the paper we discuss the complexity of modern environmental problems and the role of policy learning in solving them. We then sketch out the quaternary typologies of policy problems and discuss whether or not games and policy experiments are suitable in addressing complex, unstructured policy problems. In the last part of the paper, we introduce empirical evidence. A literature review will illuminate the potential of both methods. We also describe the policy simulation “gaming future EU climate policy” that we are developing and show how the preliminary outcomes of the game can contribute to the enhancement of policy learning.

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