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2015 - SRCD Biennial Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
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1. Jeon, Shinyoung. and Neppl, Tricia. "Economic Hardship, Parental Positivity and Positive Parenting across Generations: The Impact on Child Positive Behavior" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the SRCD Biennial Meeting, Pennsylvania Convention Center and the Philadelphia Marriott Downtown Hotel, Philadelphia, PA, Mar 19, 2015 <Not Available>. 2020-01-26 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p958613_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Poster
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: According to the Family Stress Model, economic pressure caused by economic hardship leads to emotional problems such as depression and anxiety, which can result in marital conflict, hostile parenting behaviors, and negative child outcomes (Conger & Conger, 2002; Conger, Conger, & Martin, 2010). While economic hardship is associated with negative family functioning (Brooks-Gunn & Duncan, 1997; Duncan & Brooks-Gunn, 2000; Elder, 1974; Elder, Nguyen, & Caspi, 1985), some families adapt and function well despite experiencing economic adversity. Researchers have begun to examine possible reasons why some people are more resilient to the effects of economic hardship (Bonanno, 2004; Conger & Conger, 2002; Masten, 2001). As such, the current study examined the association between economic hardship, parental positivity, and positive parenting practices across two generations. We also examined how this continuity is associated with positive behavior of the third generation child. This provides an important step in understanding how positivity and positive parenting are transmitted across generations to impact child development in those families affected by economic hardship.
Data comes from the Family Transitions Project (FTP) which is a longitudinal study of 559 target youth and their families. The present study included 220 generation one (G1) parents, their target youth (Generation two: G2) who participated from adolescence through adulthood, and the third generation child (G3) who participated in the study by 2005. The data were analyzed using two developmental time periods. Time 1 examined G1 economic hardship, G1 parent positivity, and G1 positive parenting when G2 youth were in adolescence (age 15-16). Time 2 included G2 economic hardship, G2 positivity and G2 positive parenting during adulthood and included data from the first time their G3 child participated between the ages of 3 and 5 years old.
G1 parents reported on project derived measures of economic hardship, as well as various dimensions of positivity including positive emotion (NEO), self-mastery (Pearlin, Meneghan, Lieberman, Mullan, 1981), and self-esteem (Rosenberg, 1965). G2 target adults reported on economic hardship, various dimensions of positivity such as positive affect (Rand Health Science Program, 1986), self-mastery and coping (Conger, 1993). Observer ratings were used to assess both G1 and G2 positive parenting which included parental warmth, communication, listener responsiveness, assertiveness, and prosocial behavior toward their child. The same indicators from observer ratings regarding G3 behaviors toward the parent were also used to assess G3 positive behavior.
Data were analyzed using Mplus Version 7 (Muthén & Muthén, 2006) FIML procedures. There was intergenerational continuity of economic hardship, positivity and positive parenting from G1 to G2 (Figure 1). G1 economic hardship impacted G1 parental positivity which, in turn, affected G1 positive parenting, while G2 economic hardship impacted both G2 parent positivity and G2 positive parenting. Finally, G2 positive parenting strongly predicted G3 positive behavior. In both generations parent positivity resulted in positive parenting. Results will be discussed in terms of the transmission of positivity and positive parenting on child development in spite of economic hardship across generations.

2005 - American Political Science Association Pages: 32 pages || Words: 12385 words || 
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2. Bailer, Stefanie. "Strategic Positioning or Sincere Expression of Opinion? An Analysis of the Negotiation Positions of Governments in EU Negotiations" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Marriott Wardman Park, Omni Shoreham, Washington Hilton, Washington, DC, Sep 01, 2005 <Not Available>. 2020-01-26 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p40897_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Analyses of the decision-making procedures in the European Union are often based on the positions of the central actors: the EU member states, the European Commission, the European Parliament. Quantitative and qualitative studies of EU negotiations need the opinions of the EU member states in order to model and investigate negotiation processes and the individual success or failure of the negotiators. Most models have so far used data generated by documentary analysis (Bueno de Mesquita & Stokman, 1994, 1997) or interview data such as the recently concluded research project “Decision Making in the European Union” (DEU) (2004). It is not clear, however, whether the preferences used in these analyses are an expression of interest or strategic positions assumed as a reaction to the position of other negotiators.
In the following paper I will show which elements determine the preferences of the EU member states in Council of Ministers negotiations. The calculations are based on the DEU data set which offers information on bargaining positions and saliencies of the EU member states in negotiations about 60 EU legislative proposals in the period 2000- 2002.
The results of my analyses will show that the negotiation positions of the EU delegations are to a large extent determined by their structural, often economic interests such as the amount which they contribute to the EU budget. Furthermore, the principal-agent relationship between the domestic constituency and the government can explain a government’s interest in some specific issues such as consumer protection. Missing positions are an expression of a lack of interest in a negotiation topic. However, I will also demonstrate that certain characteristics of the negotiation situation, such as the degree of contestation of a proposal or the institutional procedure trigger the choice of a strategy such as an extreme position.

2006 - American Sociological Association Pages: 13 pages || Words: 4529 words || 
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3. Kelly, Michelle. and Roxburgh, Susan. "Accentuating the Positive: The Relationship between Positive Spillover and Depression" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Montreal Convention Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, Aug 11, 2006 Online <PDF>. 2020-01-26 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p103536_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Although there is an ever-growing literature on negative spillover, very little research has focused on positive spillover and even less has examined the relationship between positive spillover and depression. Our paper examines the relationship between work-to-home and home-to-work positive spillover and depression. We address four questions; 1) Do home roles and demands in these roles mediate the relationship between positive spillover and depression? 2) Do resources in home and work roles moderate the relationship between positive spillover and depression? 3) Is there an interactive effect between positive work-to-home and home-to-work spillover? 4) Are there gender differences in these relationships? Using the 500 employed individuals drawn from a random sample telephone survey of the Northeast Ohio area, we find that positive home-to-work spillover is associated with lower rates of depression while positive work-to-home spillover is associated with higher rates of depression. However, neither roles nor role resources explain variation in positive spillover and no gender differences are observed. Our results also indicate that the two types of spillover interact, such that depression is highest among workers who report high work-to-home positive spillover and low home-to-work spillover. We discuss the implications of our findings for understanding the work-home interface and in terms of work-family policy.

2010 - International Communication Association Pages: unavailable || Words: 6978 words || 
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4. Min, Jihye., Shin, Wooyeol. and Kim, Joohan. "Positive Emotions Liberate Our Cognitive Judgment: The Influence of Positive Emotions on Context Effect" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, Suntec Singapore International Convention & Exhibition Centre, Suntec City, Singapore, Jun 22, 2010 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2020-01-26 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p404371_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The present study aims to explore the effects of emotions on decision making process. We examined the effects of induced emotions on the judgment of others' facial expression in the Study 1 and on the preference of abstract paintings in Study 2. In Study 1, the results showed that positive emotional states affected the judgment of facial expression in more positive way. In Study 2, the results revealed that emotional states and priming contextual effects interactively influenced on participants’ preference of the abstract paintings. The participants tended to be less influenced by the authoritive contexts under positive emotional states than negative emotional states. In both studies, responses under positive emotional states were significantly slower, and induced positive emotions led to momentary positive and independent judgments. Theoretical and methodological implications of the findings were discussed.

2015 - SRCD Biennial Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
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5. Davis, Molly., Suveg, Cynthia. and Shaffer, Anne. "Maternal Positive Affect Mediates the Link Between Family Risk and Preschoolers' Positive Affect" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the SRCD Biennial Meeting, Pennsylvania Convention Center and the Philadelphia Marriott Downtown Hotel, Philadelphia, PA, Mar 19, 2015 <Not Available>. 2020-01-26 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p931236_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Poster
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Davis and Suveg (2014) recently reviewed research documenting the critical role of positive affect (PA) in youth development and proposed a transactional model of child PA that implicates a variety of contextual factors, both biological (e.g., genetics) and environmental (e.g., parent affect, life stressors), in children’s PA development. This study aimed to empirically test one tenet of this model: that contextual stress and parent affect both play a role in children’s observed PA. Research has found that mothers’ parenting behaviors may be compromised under conditions of risk, which may, in turn, lead to children’s emotional difficulties (Shaffer, Suveg, Thomassin, & Bradbury, 2012). Therefore, it was it was expected that contexts of greater family risk would be associated with lower levels of child PA and that maternal PA would partially mediate the negative association between family risk and child PA.

This cross-sectional study included a racially and economically diverse sample of 82 mothers (M = 31.25 years, SD = 6.16, 41.50% Black, 48.80% with a total household income of less than $30,000) and their preschool-aged children (M = 3.51 years, SD = .49, 63.00% boys) who were recruited through fliers posted at local businesses and Head Start centers in the Southeastern United States. Based on maternal reports on a demographics questionnaire, the family risk score was calculated using variables that are known to confer risk (single parent status, GED/high school diploma or less educational attainment and economic disadvantage; Calkins, Blandon, Williford, & Keane, 2007). Exploring multiple risk factors is crucial given that risk factors tend to co-occur and collectively confer risk for child maladjustment (Sameroff et al., 2003). Maternal and child PA was coded from behavioral observations of an Etch-a-Sketch task that was meant to reflect a common parent-child interaction during the preschool period. Because low PA is a cardinal feature of depression (e.g., Clark & Watson, 1991), maternal depression symptoms based on self-reports on the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R; Derogatis, 1994) were used to control for depression symptoms in the main mediation model.

Family risk was significantly, negatively correlated with child PA (r = -.22, p = .04). Furthermore, the indirect effect of family risk on child PA through maternal PA was significant, even after controlling for maternal depression symptoms. The negative indirect effect indicated that higher family risk predicted lower maternal PA and, in turn, lower child PA. To further bolster our results, we ran a mediation model with maternal depression symptoms as the mediator to ensure that the indirect effects were in fact due to maternal PA, beyond potential contributions of maternal depression symptoms. The mediation model with maternal depression as the mediator was not significant, suggesting that maternal PA plays a particularly important role in the relation between family risk and preschoolers’ PA. Results of all mediation analyses are presented in Table 1.

These findings help in further specifying developmental models of child PA by delineating contextual factors that are especially pertinent to observable displays of child PA in the preschool period.

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