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2010 - ASC Annual Meeting Words: 169 words || 
1. van Brakel, Rosamunde. "Pre-Crime, Pre-Emption and Prevention: Social and Ethical Consequences of Pre-Emptive Surveillance of Children" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ASC Annual Meeting, San Francisco Marriott, San Francisco, California, Nov 16, 2010 <Not Available>. 2020-02-25 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: In the last couple of decades British government discourse on crime prevention has placed a growing emphasis on evidence-based prevention and the use of pre-emptive surveillance technologies has increased significantly. One of the applications of this pre-emptive discourse has been the development of (risk-assessment) technologies to predict which children and young people will commit crimes in the future and to intervene before it is too late. An example of this policy discussed in the paper is ONSET, a tool that is used to make an assessment of children aged 8-13 who are referred to the ‘Youth Inclusion and Support Panel’ (YISP) if they are thought to be potential offenders, on the basis of which the child will be referred to a 'diversionary' scheme.
The purpose of this paper is, by using ONSET as a case study, to firstly investigate how this pre-emptive policy has emerged and secondly to address a number of major social, ethical and legal issues that come to light when analyzing crime prevention initiatives such as these.

2018 - Comparative and International Education Society Conference Words: 595 words || 
2. Jeon, Haram., Kim, Kyung Keun. and Shim, Jaehwee. "Does school type in pre-primary education matter for learning outcomes? Inequalities in pre-primary education and academic achievement in Korea" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Comparative and International Education Society Conference, Hilton Mexico City Reforma Hotel, Mexico City, Mexico, <Not Available>. 2020-02-25 <>
Publication Type: Panel Paper
Abstract: Inequality in the opportunity to access pre-primary education has been importantly addressed to explain the mechanisms of social stratification by education and policy targeting educational inequality (e.g., the Head Start program). Pre-primary education can be strategically used for upper-class parents to establish a different starting line from other groups prior to beginning public schooling, because they can expend their socio-economic resources on their children’s education at the pre-primary level. Even though the impact on educational inequality at primary and secondary levels of unequal access to pre-primary education as determined by family socio-economic status is worrying, however, there is little empirical evidence on that impact using large-scale national or international data sets in Korea. In Korea where to the extent to which the opportunity to access to pre-primary education is open to most children regardless of their family background, the more serious concern related to educational inequality has become the type of pre-primary education that children can access. Especially, private schools at pre-primary education level that function as an effective tool to facilitate social reproduction among upper-class parents. The purpose of this study, therefore, is to clarify the complex associations among family socio-economic status, pre-primary education school type and academic achievement in Korea. Since Korea is a country where the public education system is well established and covers primary to upper-secondary levels, a study of unequal access to pre-primary education should reveal mechanism of underrepresentation for educational inequality.

In order to examine the associations of socio-economic status, pre-primary school type, and academic achievement among 15-year-old students in Korea, this study uses the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2015 data sets. The dependent variables are reading and math test scores provided as 10 plausible values, and the independent variables are school types of pre-primary education and family socio-economic status. Pre-primary education school type is categorized as ‘none’, ‘public management and mainly public funding’, ‘private management and mainly public funding’, and ‘private management and mainly private funding.’ Family socio-economic status is a single composite score created from parental education, parental occupational status and home possessions related with wealth. As a main analytical strategy, two regressions are employed to show unequal access to pre-primary education by family socio-economic status and its impact on learning outcomes among 15-year-old Korean students. First, a multinomial regression examines the association between school types of pre-primary education and family socio-economic status; second, an ordinary least squares (OLS) regression examines which type of pre-primary education matters for academic achievement, after controlling for family socio-economic status and other covariates.

Primarily, family socio-economic status is indeed found to significantly correlate with pre-primary education choice prior to elementary school entry. Compared to other groups, students at privately managed and mainly privately funded pre-primary schools showed the highest level of family socio-economic status. Then, after controlling for family socio-economic status, the hypothesis that pre-primary education in general matters for academic achievement among 15-year-old Korean students is found not to be supported, whereas private pre-primary education (i.e., private managed and mainly privately funded schools) does appear to have a positive effect on academic achievement.

This research has theoretical and policy implications. Theoretically, it confirms educational inequality prior to the commencement of public schooling and its impact on academic achievement at secondary level of education. The Korean case indicates that school choice at pre-primary education level differs by family socio-economic status and that private kindergartens can benefit academic achievement even where public schooling is highly equalized and widespread. Finally, therefore, on the basis of this theoretical implication, Korean national policy attempts related to relieving inequalities in pre-primary education are addressed.

2017 - Association of Teacher Educators Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
3. Schroeder, Stephanie. "Fostering “Inquiry as Stance” in Pre-Service Elementary Education: Challenges and Opportunities of Pre-Service Teacher Inquiry" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association of Teacher Educators, Orlando Caribe Royale, Orlando, Florida, Feb 10, 2017 Online <PDF>. 2020-02-25 <>
Publication Type: Emerging Scholars Series
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This paper examines the strengths, weakness, and transformative possibilities of thirty pre-service teachers’ inquiry projects completed during the final semester of their undergraduate program.

2003 - American Association for Public Opinion Research Words: 228 words || 
4. Rademacher, Eric. and Smith, Andrew. "Pre-Election Surveys: The Impact of Ballot Order on Pre-Election Projections.”" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Association for Public Opinion Research, Sheraton Music City, Nashville, TN, Aug 16, 2003 <Not Available>. 2020-02-25 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Researchers conducting pre-election surveys for the purpose of election projection often construct and administer multiple forms of ballot test questions. This practice is in response to codified directives in states such as Ohio where candidate name orders are rotated for each race that appears on a ballot, so that each candidate has the “opportunity” to appear first and last. Thus, in states like Ohio, rotating candidate order may be desirable in telephone surveys because such rotation simulates the operation of the Election Day ballot. In addition, formulating research designs sensitive to the potential for response order effects might improve pre-election measures of voter preferences.
The present study updates previous research conducted by the University of Cincinnati Institute for Policy Research and the University of New Hampshire Survey Research Center.
In 2002, both academic survey research centers conducted telephone surveys designed to measure vote preferences in multiple statewide races, including governor and United States Senator. Our analysis will examine the results of these surveys, which included multiple ballot order experiments. The experimental design allows for multiple analyses examining the impact ballot order has on reported vote preferences in several “types” of election contests, including 1) two candidate and multiple candidate contests, 2) higher salience “top of the ticket” election contests and “bottom of the ticket” contests, and 3) both partisan and non-partisan elections.

2015 - SRCD Biennial Meeting Words: 497 words || 
5. Valentino, Rachel. "Will Public Pre-K Really Close Achievement Gaps? Gaps in Access to Quality Pre-K between Students and Across States" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the SRCD Biennial Meeting, Pennsylvania Convention Center and the Philadelphia Marriott Downtown Hotel, Philadelphia, PA, <Not Available>. 2020-02-25 <>
Publication Type: Presentation
Abstract: By the time children enter kindergarten, there are already large gaps in achievement between black/Hispanic and white students, poor and non-poor students, and dual language learners (DLLs) and non-DLLs (Reardon & Robinson, 2008; NCES, 2011). Public pre-K is often touted as a means to close gaps, with the idea that enriching disadvantaged children’s early learning will level the playing field between them and their more advantaged peers. However, this end may not be realized if there are large gaps in the quality of pre-K experienced between groups. This paper seeks to understand overall quality gap magnitudes, variation in gaps across states, and what classroom- and state-level factors explain the size of quality gaps.

This paper uses data from the NCEDL Multi-State Pre-Kindergarten Study and the State-Wide Early Education Programs Study, which measured classroom quality in state-funded pre-K in 11 states in 2001-2002 and 2003-2004, respectively. At the time of data collection 80% of children in the U.S. participating in state-funded pre-K were enrolled in one of these 11 states. The study consists of a stratified random sample of 721 classrooms containing approximately 12,000 students, and collected data on classroom quality using structural and procedural measures. The current study uses OLS regression with appropriate survey weighting and jackknife standard errors to unsure unbiased parameter estimation.

First, I find that black-white, Hispanic-white, poor-non-poor, and DLL-non-DLL quality gaps in standard deviation units are large, ranging from 0.3 to 0.7 SD, with the largest gaps on measures of emotional and instructional climate (see Table 1 for an abbreviated list of raw gaps).

Second, I examine what factors explain the size of gaps on procedural measures of quality, considering three groups of variables: 1) structural characteristics such as teacher education to consider, for instance, whether variation across classrooms and groups in teacher training explains the size of gaps; 2) the initial competency of students upon entry to the program to examine whether when initial skills of the students are low, teachers target teaching to students’ ability; and 3.) classroom composition to consider, for example, whether the proportion of low SES kids in the classroom explains the size of racial quality gaps. State fixed effects are included in these models. I find that structural characteristics generally explain little to none of the size of quality gaps, while initial student ability and classroom composition each explain about 50-65% of gap magnitudes. Gaps of about 0.2 to 0.3 SD remain on most quality measures net of these factors.

Third, I consider whether there is between-state variation in the size of quality gaps, and find sizable differences across states (See figure 1 for gaps on the Early Childhood Environmental Rating Scale).

Additionally, in the presentation I will report on state-level factors, such as segregation and the rates at which states expanded their pre-K programs, that account for between-state differences in the size of quality gaps. This question is particularly important, as idiosyncratic state policies may provide insight into broader policy reform to equalize quality access across groups.

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