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2017 - APSA Annual Meeting & Exhibition Words: 783 words || 
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1. Kumar, Martha. "Venues Where Presidents Meet the Press: From Press Conferences to Interviews" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the APSA Annual Meeting & Exhibition, TBA, San Francisco, CA, Aug 31, 2017 <Not Available>. 2019-06-16 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1251442_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Presidential Interchanges with Reporters: From Press Conferences to Interviews. In recent administrations from Presidents Reagan to Obama, presidents have moved from using press conferences as the major forum where they meet reporters to short question and answer sessions as well as interviews with journalists in both on the record and off the record sessions. Presidents use the resources that are available to them to get to the public and to the specific constituencies they are interested in reaching. During the time the last five presidents have been in office, we can see the variety of venues presidents have chosen to meet reporters. There are three basic forums presidents use: press conferences (joint and solo sessions), short question and answer sessions, and interviews.
Using a database I have built for presidential interchanges with reporters for the years from Reagan through Obama, I lay out the venues where reporters met these five presidents. How they made their choices depended on the presidents' personal style, the media environment at the time, and their leadership needs. President Reagan, for example, chose to conduct 30 nighttime news conferences in the East Room where he captured the attention of the three existing networks and the attention of a broad public. By the time President Obama was in office, networks were not willing to provide presidents with the same network time. In fact, Presidents Clinton, GW Bush and Obama met only four times each with reporters in nighttime East Room sessions.
Without the high profile night time press conference sessions, chief executives selected other ways to meet with reporters. For President George H. W. Bush, that meant developing joint press conferences with foreign leaders. For President Clinton, the choice was to hold more short question and answer sessions. President George W. Bush balanced his sessions with reporters by using all three venues in fairly equal measure.
By the time President Obama, came into office, the constellation of traditional new organizations no longer existed. Many newspapers no longer existed and the national news magazines they favored were no longer in print. With diminished print choices, Obama chose interviews as the way he would get to his constituents to advance particular policies. By the end of September in his eighth year, he had more interviews than his two predecessors combined. He had 1,070 interviews.
In this paper, I will go through the ways in which presidents have used the three venues and how they developed interviews as the most important current forum. I have built that part of my database by working with White House officials in the last three administrations to develop their base of interviews. In analyzing presidential interviews, I have broken them down by type of audience and type of media. For audience, I use national, local, foreign, sport, and mixed For type of media, I break them down into television, print, radio, online, and mixed. I have the audience and media broken down by first and second terms. Through these breakdowns, we can see how the five presidents made their interview selections.
By going through records in the Reagan and GHW Bush libraries, I gathered information from the President's Daily Diary on all of the two presidents' contacts with reporters where the chief executives met or talked by phone with reporters. Altogether for the five most recent presidents, I have the most extensive data on presidential interchanges with reporters. Through an examination of the three types of interchanges with reporters, we learn how presidents adapt to changes in their environment and how chief executives chose sessions that reflect their own personal styles. Often scholars focus on the publicly available interchanges with reporters in press conference or short question and answer sessions, but now interviews are a crucial place where presidents meet the press. We need information on all three venues, not simply the two we have focused on in recent years. Presidential interviews have quickly become a favored setting for presidents and are likely to remain so. We need to learn more about them, especially in relation to the press conferences and short question and answer sessions they have traditionally held in recent decades.
Presidents use the resources available to them when they are in office and have sufficient flexibility to take existing forums and adapt them to their personal needs. At the same time, no matter who is president, the chief executive is going to meet with reporters in whatever forums meet his needs and reflect the media environment at the time.

2009 - NCA 95th Annual Convention Words: 75 words || 
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2. Wang, Runze. and Lin, Mu. "A New Press in the Making: Development of commercial Chinese press, 1912-1927" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the NCA 95th Annual Convention, Chicago Hilton & Towers, Chicago, IL, <Not Available>. 2019-06-16 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p364784_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Privately owned and operated newspapers began to appear in China toward late 19th century and experienced a steady growth till 1949 when Chinese Communist Party came into power. This study attempts to find out the trends or characteristics of the commercial press from 1900s to 1920s. This paper explores the difficult situations faced by early commercial press, the transition of business model from distribution-oriented to advertising-oriented, and the transition from partisan papers to independent papers.

2013 - Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication Pages: unavailable || Words: 12425 words || 
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3. Chang, Kuang-Kuo. "The Press, Social Actors and Suicide: Press Coverage of and Public’s Attitudes toward Suicide" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication, Renaissance Hotel, Washington DC, Aug 08, 2013 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-06-16 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p669706_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This study reviewed the current plight of suicide facing Taiwan, conducted a nationwide survey of general public, and content analyzed how four major local newspapers had covered the issue. Findings could broaden the theoretical scope of health communication with the application of social determinants in studying other public health and societal problems. Outcomes also carry significant pragmatic implications for journalists and their audiences, policymakers, and other major stakeholders.

2016 - 87th SPSA Annual Conference Words: 200 words || 
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4. Wright, Thorin. and Berliner, Daniel. "Press During Wartime: Conflict and Press Freedom in Democracies and Autocracies" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 87th SPSA Annual Conference, Caribe Hilton, San Juan, Puerto Rico, Jan 07, 2016 <Not Available>. 2019-06-16 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1062174_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: How does involvement in conflict affect states’ respect for media freedom? We argue that conflict creates multiple dilemmas for leaders between imperatives for secrecy and openness. Leaders see secrecy as valuable both for operational success, and for preventing negative information about failures, mistakes, and abuses from reaching domestic and international audiences. However, leaders also see openness as valuable for costly signaling, bureaucratic oversight, and avoiding domestic and international sanctions. We argue that these dilemmas will be resolved in different ways by different types of regimes facing different types of conflict. Autocracies are more likely than democracies to respond to conflicts by restricting media freedoms. However, all regime types are likely to repress media when facing civil conflicts. The response of democracies in particular to international conflict varies depending on conflict intensity. At low levels of conflict intensity, imperatives for secrecy predominate, while at high levels, imperatives for openness predominate. We find support for these hypotheses using multiple indicators of press freedom and conflict in a global time-series cross-national sample. Our paper builds on prior work on repression, but extends the focus from physical integrity rights to media repression. Our paper also brings an international focus to research on media freedom.

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