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2016 - American Sociological Association Annual Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
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1. Burkhardt, Brett. "Does the Public Sector Respond to Private Competition? An Analysis of Privatization and Prison Performance" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Washington State Convention Center, Seattle, WA, Aug 17, 2016 Online <PDF>. 2020-01-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1119588_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The competition thesis states that the introduction of competition from private sector service providers will spur performance improvements in previously monopolistic public sector service providers, who fear (further) delegation of their responsibilities to the private sector. This paper examines the competition thesis in the context of prisons. It adopts a differences-in-differences approach to compare over-time performance changes among newly competitive facilities relative to non-competitive facilities. Using data on 1,776 unique facilities in 2000 and 2005, the analyses fail to confirm the competition thesis. On six of eight performance measures, newly competitive facilities exhibited statistically identical over-time changes in performance relative to non-competitive facilities. On the remaining performance measures, competition proved beneficial on one and harmful on another. These findings are resilient to various changes in model specification. Overall, the analysis fails to find robust evidence of the competition thesis in the context of prisons. This finding has implications for policy debates regarding correctional privatization.

2018 - Comparative and International Education Society Conference Words: 793 words || 
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2. Ngware, Moses. and Mutisya, Maurice. "Privatization of education in Africa: Why do poor households utilize fee-charging private schools?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Comparative and International Education Society Conference, Hilton Mexico City Reforma Hotel, Mexico City, Mexico, Mar 25, 2018 <Not Available>. 2020-01-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1352780_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Objective: Different hypotheses have been advanced to explain the utilization of low fees private schools by poor households. In this paper we explore claims that are pitched on quality, school fees and availability of government schools. That is, is it quality of education in private schooling or low fee charged in such schools or access to government schools that attract poor parents to utilize them? Though these are the main lines probed in the paper, we control for individual and household level variables such as child age and household head level of education.
Perspective(s): There has been a global discourse of low fees private schools with one side of the divide claiming that it will fuel inequalities in education provision, it is of poor quality and a violation of children rights of access to public good. On the other hand, the proponents of low private schools argue that such provision provides alternative choices, improves access to schooling among the poor and improves standards of learning. Private providers of education among poor households are diverse and driven by different motives. For example, profit, philanthropy, faith and other unknown interests. Unfortunately, there exists scanty data on most providers as they operate in a closed systems to safeguard their business and operational models.
The context: Financing basic education in the global south is a hot policy debate and governments in power heavily subsidize the cost in their attempts to ensure education for all and inclusion. But in the same vain, there has been a proliferation of low fees private schools targeting poor households for business. This means that education, a public good, can be sold at the market place – using the “willing seller willing buyer” principle even in countries in the global south, some with gini-coefficient index of as high is 0.48, for example in Kenya. While providing schooling choice to households may improve access to schooling, if education is “sold” in an open but monopolized market, then chances are that the consumer may be exploited either through high prices/fees or low quality. Though Kenya has made significant steps in the provision of education through introduction of universal education policies, there remains a considerable proportion of urban poor who hardly benefit from such policies. Research done in informal urban settlements in Kenya show that at least 47% of children from major urban slums in Kenya attend low fee non-state schools, and currently they do not benefit from government’s tuition-free schooling program despite them being pro-poor programs. The proportions vary by urban area with Nairobi at over 63%. This constitutes an exclusion from public services and the situation is getting complicated with the entrance of more private education investors targeting poor households.
Methods: Data is from a study conducted in Nairobi’s urban informal settlements (slums) in 2010. This survey data includes 6660 primary school going-children, spread across 4220 households and attending 206 both government (29%) and low fees private primary (71%) schools. Using a structural equation model, we analyze direct and indirect factors that potentially explain why poor households prefer utilizing low fee private schools in the era of a government subsidized public schooling, popularly known as free primary education. Our analysis also provides individual and household level variables that associate with school choice as well as comparisons of narratives pitting government and low fee private schools in the same context.
Results and conclusions: The article provides compelling evidence on the extent to which perceived quality of government and low fees private schools, school charges and distance from home to school influence the choice of school. In particular, perception on quality, augmented by distance to school, a proxy for school availability, has a stronger influence on the preferred school type. In as long us households perceive low fees private schools to be of better quality, they will continue utilizing them. Consequently, their children will be excluded from the government subsidized schooling available in public schools.
Policy and scholarly implications: The implications of these results points to the need for reducing exclusion of needy urban children from free primary education. This could be possible if the so called low fee private schools are brought under the close watch of the Ministry of Education and provided with conditional capitation grants targeting the child and not the school. This paper improves our understanding of the dynamics of privatization of education among poor populations in the global south and sheds more light on how best the education of the poor could be subsidized. In her editorial on non-state provision of education in Africa and Asia, Ross (2009 ) calls for appropriate evidence to substantiate claims for or against non-state provision of education among the poor. The paper attempts to contribute to such evidence.

2007 - AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CRIMINOLOGY Words: 201 words || 
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3. Thomas, Matthew. and Ruddell, Rick. "Police Strength and Private Security: An Investigation of Public and Private Responses to Perceived Threats" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CRIMINOLOGY, Atlanta Marriott Marquis, Atlanta, Georgia, Nov 14, 2007 <Not Available>. 2020-01-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p201142_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Policing in the United States exhibits wide degrees of variation, stemming from the tradition of local control of law enforcement. While law enforcement exists at all levels of government, the vast majority of law enforcement personnel work at the local jurisdictional level, and the rate of officers per residents varies significantly. Previous investigations of police strength have at times focused on all law enforcement personnel, only sworn personnel, or only patrol personnel. Some of the theoretical predictors of police strength include economic and minority threat theory, organizational theory, and rational choice theory. The threat theories predict that as minority or economic threat increases, a corresponding increase will occur in formal social control, in the form of increased police strength. We expand on this line of inquiry, by examining both formal social and informal social control. We investigate the size of both law enforcement, and other types of social control, such as private security, to ascertain how the private marketplace also responds to levels of crime and perceived threats. Our examination of 200 Standard Metropolitan Areas reveals the complex relationships between social control, the polity, and the cultural values, beliefs, and fears of the public.

2005 - American Political Science Association Pages: 27 pages || Words: 11542 words || 
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4. Mabe, William. "Privatization and Corporate Governance: The Effect of Privatization on Shareholder Rights, Financial Disclosure, and Insider Trading Laws in the Developed Economies" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Marriott Wardman Park, Omni Shoreham, Washington Hilton, Washington, DC, Sep 01, 2005 <Not Available>. 2020-01-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p40097_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: I develop two explanations for how privatization may lead states to strengthen their laws to regulate corporate governance. First, in order to maximize the revenues that they earn from privatization, governments may adopt laws that bolster corporate governance before they privatize their state-owned enterprises (SOEs). Alternatively, privatization may empower investors who favor laws that improve corporate governance. By this explanation, the more SOEs a country privatizes, the more likely it becomes to reform corporate governance. In both explanations, privatization drives corporate governance reform. In the first, it is the decision to privatize that leads states to modify these laws. In the second, however, it is the occurrence of privatization that results in legislative changes to enhance corporate governance. If the first explanation is correct corporate governance reform should precede the actual privatization of SOEs. If the second is correct, then corporate governance reforms should follow the privatization of SOEs. These hypotheses are not, however, mutually exclusive. Combining them suggests the following temporal relationship: a country adopts corporate governance reforms; it then privatizes its SOEs; and then adopts more reforms to corporate governance. I test these hypotheses on a dataset of 14 advanced industrialized European countries from 1980 to 1997. The results offer some support for the first hypothesis, but none for the second.

2006 - American Political Science Association Pages: 38 pages || Words: 9242 words || 
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5. Brophy-Baermann, Michelle. and Bloeser, Andrew. "Going Private: How the Press Failed to Inform the Public of Welfare Privatization" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Marriott, Loews Philadelphia, and the Pennsylvania Convention Center, Philadelphia, PA, Aug 31, 2006 <Not Available>. 2020-01-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p151940_index.html>
Publication Type: Proceeding
Abstract: I just lost what I typed in... I'll try again when I'm not so frustrated!

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