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2008 - ISA's 49th ANNUAL CONVENTION, BRIDGING MULTIPLE DIVIDES Words: 467 words || 
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1. Drutschmann, Sebastian. "Principal-Agent Problems in the Private Security Industry: Critical Perspectives on the Use of Agency Theory in Modelling the Behaviour of Private Security Companies in Contemporary Post-Conflict Scenarios" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ISA's 49th ANNUAL CONVENTION, BRIDGING MULTIPLE DIVIDES, Hilton San Francisco, SAN FRANCISCO, CA, USA, Mar 26, 2008 <Not Available>. 2019-09-16 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p252700_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: The literature on security privatization is overwhelmingly critical of any use of private security companies (PSCs) by western governments in post-conflict reconstruction environments (see for example Singer 2003). Due to their organizational form as private, profit-making entities, PSCs have greater motivation and more opportunity to make financial profit at the expense of their contractual partners and with possibly dire consequences for the success of the wider mission context in which they operate. Elsewhere, I have shown that this model of PSC behaviour is problematic, both theoretically and, probably more importantly, empirically (Drutschmann 2007). Contrary to the widespread consensus in the literature on security privatization, the large scale use of PSCs in, to a large extent, mission critical roles did not end in the predicted fiasco. Instead, the available evidence indicates that PSCs conducted themselves much more reliable than expected. In an effort to explain why the prevalent conceptualization of PSC behaviour is not supported by the empirical evidence, this paper will take a look at its theoretical foundation, specifically on the way in which agency theory is used to understand the relationship between the contracting state (principal) and PSCs (agent). In its first part, the paper will show that the current application of agency theory is not only overly simplistic, but that, as a result, important aspects of the theory are neglected and misunderstood. In its second part, the paper will take a look at how economic theory, from which agency theory is derived, discusses and deals with principal-agent relationships and the problems associated with them. The aim of this second part will be twofold. On the one hand, it will attempt to show that agency theory, despite its flawed current application, holds the potential of making a significant contribution to the understanding of the contractual relationship between states and PSCs. On the other hand, it will determine how and to what extent theoretical concepts that economists use to understand and solve principal agent problems are applicable to the private security industry. Theoretically, a focus will be on the field of economic sociology, which has greatly improved the understanding of economic processes in general and of agency related problems in particular in the last two decades. In its third and final part, the paper provides a broader outlook on the influence and contribution economic theory can make to the study of security privatization. Firstly, it will provide a brief overview of the few occasions when economic theory has been contributed to the discussion on security privatization. Secondly, it will address the question why economic theory, despite its obvious applicability, so far has only played a minor role in the study of private security companies and, finally, it will provide an outlook as to how economic concepts can be usefully integrated into the existing discussion on security privatization.

2010 - ASC Annual Meeting Words: 170 words || 
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2. Mulone, Massimiliano. "From Private Policing to Commercial Policing: A Redefinition of Private Security and Public Police Interactions" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ASC Annual Meeting, San Francisco Marriott, San Francisco, California, Nov 17, 2010 <Not Available>. 2019-09-16 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p431527_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: In the seemingly continuously changing world of the governance of security, a lot of attention has been drawn on the growing private security industry and its role in these changes (as cause and/or consequence). If it’s true that the private security is actually more and more visible in the public space (a traditionally public police preserve), the police are at the same time more and more inclined to sell their services, thus challenging the private sector directly.
Drawing from a case study of a big North American city, we will show that the growing competition – symbolically and financially – between the public and the private sector is not without consequences, especially on their capacity to build future partnerships. Moreover, the commercial activities of the police are blurring the public-private dichotomy to a point that it could threaten the definitions of the police and the private security themselves. As a new category of actions, the notion of commercial policing could be used as a solution to rethink this traditional distinction.

2010 - NCA 96th Annual Convention Words: 166 words || 
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3. Balter-Reitz, Susan. "Building Bridges between Public and Private: Private Crosses in Public Places in the Strange Case of Salazar v. Buono" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the NCA 96th Annual Convention, Hilton San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, <Not Available>. 2019-09-16 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p420588_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: In one of the most intriguing cases of the 2009 term, the Supreme Court is being asked to determine whether the display of a cross memorializing WWI vets located in the Mojave National Preserve is a violation of the Establishment Clause. Unlike earlier Establishment Clause cases, Salazar v. Buono is complicated by a unique legislative mandate. Congress, in response to a lower court ruling that invalidated the display, ordered the Park Service to sell the land that the cross sits upon to the VFW, which would make the claim that this display is a government supported religious symbol irrelevant. The 9th Circuit has invalidated the property transfer, yet the Government insists that it no longer controls the site of the cross and so it is not responsible for the message conveyed by this icon. Whatever the Court's ruling in this case, it will produce new implications for the already blurring distinctions between public and private property that will effect audiences' perception of government messages.

2014 - Comparative and International Education Society Annual Conference Words: 728 words || 
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4. Cheng, Pingyuan. and Chen, Yao. "Constructing Merit in Privatized Public Education: Survey about Private Supplementary Tutoring in the City of Nanjing in China" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Comparative and International Education Society Annual Conference, Sheraton Centre Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Mar 10, 2014 <Not Available>. 2019-09-16 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p708850_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Recent decades have witnessed a mushrooming of private supplementary tutoring (PST) all over the world. An increasing number of parents chose to provide their kids with additional lessons even after regular school hours (Bray, 1999, 2009, 2010, 2012; Buchmann, 2002; Kim, 2004; Stevenson & Baker, 1992). In East Asian countries, especially those regions with Confucius cultural traditions, like China, the phenomenon is even more severe (Fukuzawa & LeTendre, 2001; Kim and Lee, 2004; Rosegaard, 2006). As a global phenomenon, private supplementary tutoring institutions have some common factors across the world. Some of them are built like a smaller-size school near communities; some bigger tutoring agencies often took the franchise model, and have more than one teaching location in a city. Most of these institutions teach math, science and foreign language to students who attend public elementary or secondary schools (Bray, 1999, 2009, 2010, 2012).
With the most-recent development, PST institutions no longer satisfied by the interests and profits generated by one-on-one or small-size-class room teaching at the local level, many of them have suddenly changed into big international corporations, with cross-country networks and shareholders across the world (Bray, 2012). However, unlike many other burgeoning industries, those companies, be categorized as “commercial service schools” on the stock markets across the world, seldom draw people’s attention. In large cities of China, it is common to have two PST institutions within one square kilometer of the city land. These agencies are like grocery stores or gas stations, which even become a necessary part of a “good” community.
This paper will report results from a survey study on the private supplementary tutoring (PST) in the city of Nanjing in China, which lasts from 2010 to 2012. 3000 survey forms were collected from students and parents who attended different PST agencies. The survey asked about the scale, the content, the price and organization of tutoring. The central question of the study is: what are the driving forces for students and parents to choose PST, and how that is related to their social-economic status (SES)? In addition to the survey, extensive classroom observations, semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions were also used to get deeper understanding of the phenomenon.
Our data shows that more than 89% of the surveyed students have attended PST, and averagely every student has attended five different tutorial classes. Without prove or falsify “causal” relationship between the usage of PST and family SES (or other variables, like students’ scores, Gini efficient or GDP), this study views PST in Nanjing as a part of the globalized phenomenon of privatization in education happened in the local post-socialism context. Comparison will be made between the practice and reason for attending PST in Nanjing and the results from comparative education studies in other nations.
We now know that every nation in the world has formal outside school classes and private tutoring that are used to help students navigate a successful passage through the educational system (Baker and LeTendre 2005; Bray 1999). In Western industrialized countries, such as the United States, the United Kingdom and Canada, shadow education is not as prevalent as Asian countries, but is growing rapidly in recent years (Bray 2010, 2012; Buchmann, et al.2010; Burch, 2009). One form of institutionalized tutoring “the learning center,” is the fastest growing franchise in North America (Aurini & Davies, 2004). In the United States, the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) legislation has pushed forward a neo-liberal education agenda in the whole nation. A new government-sponsored scheme of PST was implemented in many school districts and communities, with a growing number of students participate in public-supported tutoring programs that provided by private educational agencies (Burch et al, 2007; Burch 2009).
Many scholars have addressed the influence of neo-liberalism (especially after the 1990s) in the making of educational policies in western countries and some of the Latin American nations. However, few scholars have notified us the growth of neo-liberalism in the once all public education sectors in China. As the whole Chinese society fell into a worship of the market-driven economy and unrestrained mass consumerism, the educational system cannot stand alone. Privatization of education in China took many forms. PST is one of the forms with the most controversy. Bourdieu’s theory about species of capital and symbolic violence, critical theory on neo-liberalism and Foucault’s theory on governmentality will be used as tools by researchers to delineating the results.

2013 - International Communication Association Words: 319 words || 
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5. Wilkins, Karin. "Privatization of Global Development: How National Policies Support Private Funding From Global Communications Industries" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, Hilton Metropole Hotel, London, England, <Not Available>. 2019-09-16 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p636344_index.html>
Publication Type: Session Paper
Abstract: Profiting from global markets, global communication industries produce political, economic and social capital that benefits wealthy and famous individuals. The combined net worth of social media tycoons stands at nearly $US 100 billion, with the industry itself worth $US 215 billion. Examples of global communication owners include Bill Gates, one of the most prominent individual donors in global development, worth $US 56 billion, and Warren Buffet, with an estimated worth of $US 50 billion. Individuals who profit from global communications technologies marketed through capitalist enterprises contribute to global development programs and establish their own foundations.
While the trend toward private donors has been growing steadily, estimated at $25 billion in 2008, their overall contributions still measure up to considerably less than that of bilateral and multilateral aid. National policies take on critical importance in determining allocations for bilateral foreign aid, in terms of amount, country, and focus for intervention, and for multilateral aid, grants and loans. Moreover, national agencies determine taxing structures that allow owners of global communication industries to accrue profits, thus enabling their contributions to global development. The wealth that elite individuals and corporations are able to accrue is directly tied to the degree to which they are taxed: when national taxes are low, public funding available for allocations such as public programs and foreign aid is reduced, distributing more wealth into those accruing wealth who then may decide to fund privately philanthropic organizations and causes.

The rise of “philanthrocapitalism” has been met with applause as well as critique. Some see this funding as a necessary complement to public forms of overseas development assistance, particularly important given recent global and national economic crises. Concerns are raised though when philanthrocapitalism is recognized as not merely a form of economic exchange, but as encompassing a neoliberal ideology. This discussion allows us to articulate agency within national domains in relation to collaborations with private donors in the course of development work.

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