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1. Grimm, Sonja. "Proceeding Democracy Promotion – Supporting and Hindering Conditions" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ISA's 49th ANNUAL CONVENTION, BRIDGING MULTIPLE DIVIDES, Hilton San Francisco, SAN FRANCISCO, CA, USA, Mar 26, 2008 <Not Available>. 2019-10-16 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Project evaluations assessing the efforts of external democracy promoters and the quality of the strategies and instruments deployed ’on the ground’ suffer mostly from a lack of theoretical understanding of transitional processes. In promoting democracy, international or regional organizations as well as single-state actors are confronted with multiple problems. Especially the simultaneity respectively dissimultaneity of security-, state-, nation-, and welfare-building requirements puts pressure on the transition to democracy. So far this fact has not received much consideration both in evaluating undertaken projects and in readjusting new promotion strategies.Clues to unintended side-effects, but also to reciprocal effects of the multiple virulent processes that affect the development of a full-fledged democracy are not well researched yet. In order to bridge this gap, the paper proposes an analytical frame that identifies five parallel processes: (1) security-building, (2) state-building including the development of the rule of law, (3) economic development and welfare-building, (4) nation-building, and (5) the political transition to democracy. In combination with a three phase transformation scheme, from (a) stabilization over (b) institutionalization to (c) consolidation, the analytical frame offers the chance to identify concrete transitional obstacles as well as mutually accelerating, but also mutually retarding effects of these five dimensions. The success of the promotion of democracy should be most fragmentary when democracy promoters do not deal with the dimensions (1) to (4) at all and confine themselves to the already highly politicized building of a democratic political regime as defined in dimension (5).In the second part of the paper, the example of Bosnia-Herzegovina’s transformation under the supervision of the international community of states demonstrates the benefits of the proposed analytical approach. Using the analytical frame, the empirical analysis identifies the retarding moments in Bosnia-Herzegovina’s post-war transformation. It suggests an insight why democracy promotion is less successful when state-, nation-, and welfare-building requirements overlay the political transformation. The absence of an effective management of the dimensions (1) to (4) and the resulting slow-down of transformation retard political democratization. The paper argues that this again hinders the withdrawal of the international community of states as responsible govern

2009 - ASC Annual Meeting Words: 147 words || 
2. Gathings, M.J.. and Parrotta, Kylie. "Court Room Drama: A Dramaturgical Analysis of Sentencing Proceedings" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ASC Annual Meeting, Philadelphia Marriott Downtown, Philadelphia, PA, Nov 04, 2009 <Not Available>. 2019-10-16 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Although the “sex effect” in sentencing outcomes is well-documented empirically, it is not approached from a qualitative social-psychological perspective. In this paper, we use observations from courts in two North Carolina counties and preliminary interview data to explore how inequality is manifested and reproduced in the criminal justice system. Coming from a dramaturgical perspective (Goffman 1959), we focus on the front stage construction of innocence and guilt. We discuss how defendants present themselves in gendered, classed, and radicalized ways (Goffman 1959, 1977; West and Zimmerman 1987) and how this influences their sentencing outcomes. Accounts presented by both prosecutors and defense attorneys are examined. Patterns in both presentations of self and accounts are linked to prominent theoretical perspectives. Our observations provide insight into the underlying processes that may be taking place in focal concerns (Steffensmeier et al. 1993), uncertainty avoidance/causal attribution (Albonetti 1992), and familial paternalism (Daly 1994).

2010 - The Law and Society Association Words: 283 words || 
3. Greenlee, Mel. "You’re Asking ME? Juror Questions in Capital Proceedings" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The Law and Society Association, Renaissance Chicago Hotel, Chicago, IL, May 27, 2010 <Not Available>. 2019-10-16 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Linguistic studies of courtroom interactions have focused on the conventions for questions and answers in the courtroom, such as who is permitted to pose questions of whom. In addition, linguists have shown that the coerciveness of courtroom questions varies systematically, and that certain answer styles are likely to be misinterpreted and/or to have a less favorable effect on the adjudicator. Control of questioning form, topic and sequence shapes the proceeding, affording considerable power to the questioner’s role.
Yet, ironically, those courtroom actors with ultimate decision-power, members of the jury, may not be allowed to ask questions, or to ask only questions restricted as to addressee, form, topic and timing. California courts have held that allowing juror questions in certain circumstances is “inherently dangerous.” (People v. McAlister (1985) 167 Cal. App.3d 644).
However, jurors’ questions may reveal crucial dilemmas or confusion. Post-verdict interviews of capital jurors have shown that even life or death decisions may be made under misapprehension of sentencing options and foundational concepts in the court’s instructions. (See, e.g., Ursula Bentele & William J. Bowers, How Jurors Decide on Death: Guilt Is Overwhelming; Aggravation Requires Death; and Mitigation Is No Excuse, 66 Brook. L. Rev. 1011, 1019-31 (2001).)
This paper examines questions posed by jurors, as well as the courts’ varied responses, in capital case data from transcripts and pleadings. Jurors’ questions in the sample varied in timing, topic, and clarity. Responses ranged from refusal to answer (or repetition of prior material) to elaborately negotiated answers. Nevertheless, in many instances, the question telegraphed a confusion which the response did little to allay, and in fact, the exchange may have tipped the decision process toward a death verdict.

2010 - American Psychology - Law Society Words: 100 words || 
4. Wingrove, Twila., Beal, Sarah. and Weisz, Victoria. "Do Models of Procedural Justice Apply to Children? Exploring Procedural Justice in Child Protection Proceedings" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychology - Law Society, Westin Bayshore Hotel, Vancouver, BC, Canada, <Not Available>. 2019-10-16 <>
Publication Type: Symposium Paper
Abstract: The authors used a procedural justice framework to evaluate minors’ perceptions of decision-making in dependency cases. Participants were 43 minors who attended their hearings. Using structural equation modeling, we tested participants’ evaluations of the process against several models from the adult literature. The analyses revealed significant relationships between components of procedural justice and decision outcomes, but adult models of procedural justice did not adequately account for reactions. Age-related differences were found within the sample. The authors concluded that this study provided preliminary evidence that procedural justice is influential on minors’ reactions to legal decisions, but that important developmental differences exist.

2010 - 4S Annual Meeting - Abstract and Session Submissions Words: 353 words || 
5. Takaiwa, Yoshinobu. "The Oral History Project "The first ten years of KEK": How did it start and proceed" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 4S Annual Meeting - Abstract and Session Submissions, Komaba I Campus, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan, <Not Available>. 2019-10-16 <>
Publication Type: Abstract
Abstract: The oral history project "The first ten years of KEK" which is now underway was planned to understand social and historical meanings of influences of the establishment of KEK, High Energy Physics Laboratory, as the very first inter-university research institute of Japan. The KEK is one of main high energy physics laboratory in the world now but before its establishment and the earliest days of it were not easy.

Finally it was built in 1971, and successful establishment of it has been regarded as a triumph of the democracy; the KEK was proposed after intense discussion among nuclear and particle physicists within a framework of the organization of academic societies, The Science Council of Japan, which was regarded as a body to realize "democracy" in the community of scientists.

After this, the influences of it have been seen in various aspects. In our project, selection of interviewees for oral history interviews were made according to the discussion of focusing on some of such aspects. The examples of them are the following: One is the changes in structure of the community of researchers and their working practices. And also cultural exchange between people based at domestic institutions, in particular, of younger generation and experienced researchers who had chances to work abroad and then returned to Japan to help establishing KEK.

The other example of such aspect we are interested in is social and cultural impact on both local people of an agriculture based rural area and highly educated and academic people moved to this area as newcomers due to the introduction of KEK.

In addition, the first stage planning of the project includes understanding and making strategies of necessary procedures to process oral history interview records as an important step, such as making and editing their transcriptions, archiving them to be refered by public, and analyzing the interviews with appropriate methods, all of which are apparently not simple nor trivial. The strategies for them we are now employing are also discussed.

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