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2010 - American Sociological Association Annual Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: 8136 words || 
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1. Park, Cheon-Oong. "Professions in Colonialism: Structural Dimensions of Colonial Professions" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Hilton Atlanta and Atlanta Marriott Marquis, Atlanta, GA, Aug 14, 2010 Online <PDF>. 2019-04-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p409116_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The motivation of this paper is to examine the premises and conditions for the study of colonial professions. From the bourgeoning of profession study, many have sought to figure out professions and professionals in conjunction with social institutions. With only a few exceptions, however, there have been no serious attempts to examine the professions in relation with colonial social institutions. Using Sewell’s theory of structure, I investigate what premises in the academic traditions of colonialism and professions have hindered or distracted our view from combining the two. I propose that when considering structures linked with agency, the structure of colonial professions can be understood well.

2009 - The Law and Society Association Words: 148 words || 
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2. Harrell, Susan. and Posey-Goodwin, Patricia. "Using the Medical Profession as a Model for Change in the Legal Profession: The Unmet Need for Civil Legal Services" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The Law and Society Association, Grand Hyatt, Denver, Colorado, May 25, 2009 <Not Available>. 2019-04-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p319163_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The provision of legal services in the United States is strictly limited to licensed attorneys. Legislation and rules in every state impose penalties upon non-lawyers who engage in the unauthorized/unlicensed practice of law. There are an ever-growing number of licensed attorneys. However, there is a large segment of the population who cannot afford to secure the services of a licensed attorney. In comparison, the medical profession has addressed the public need for medical care by allowing for the creation, education, regulation and supervision of a variety of medical care professionals who are not licensed medical doctors and do not commit the unlicensed practice of medicine. It is time for the legal profession to consider adoption of a more expansive and accessible model of providing legal services to the public through the use of a variety of specially educated, regulated and supervised legal professionals.

2013 - The Law and Society Association Words: 383 words || 
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3. Carrington, Paul. "Crisis in Legal Profession: The Duties of the Profession" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The Law and Society Association, Sheraton Boston Hotel, Boston, MA, May 30, 2013 <Not Available>. 2019-04-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p644919_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: My paper is an account of the rising price of legal education as it has evolved in American universities beginning in the 20th century. It measures the consequences of the 1965 Guaranteed Student Loan Fund for professional schools seeking to elevate their social status by providing ever more elaborate services for their students with little or no regard for the practical value of those services for the clients or public institutions that their graduates plan to serve.
The 1971 annual meeting of the AALS centered momentary attention on the proposal, but it is fair to say that it was not seriously considered. No law faculty wanted to think about a reform that would diminish its relative status in the profession, in its university, and in the academic profession at large, and perhaps even in the minds of the public at large. Perhaps the American Bar Association or the Association of American Law Schools could have used the accreditation process to make the profession more accessible and improve the availability of legal services. But they did not, in part because the preoccupation with the task of elevating the status of the profession and its law schools made such reforms unimaginable to those engaged in the work of accreditation.
Meanwhile, diverse changes in the global economy and the advent of technology are reducing the need or demand for costly legal services. There continues to be a place for the academic elite who invest their careers in the intellectual discipline of academic law. But the demand for their teaching services is inevitably destined to be materially reduced. As former dean and university president Eugene Nichol forecasts, some present professors of law will soon be laid off. So we must recognize that we have built a system of legal education that does not serve many of the students whose professional services will be badly needed but cannot be well paid. Having shared in the advancement of radical reform in 1971, and being past the age of those threatened by the present realities, I am more comfortable with it than I would expect many of my present academic colleagues to be. It is an unveiled threat to many. But the time has come to face the market reality.

2005 - American Sociological Association Pages: 30 pages || Words: 6535 words || 
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4. Vargha, Zsuzsanna. "Educators or postmoderns: using the West in the struggles of a post-socialist advertising profession" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Marriott Hotel, Loews Philadelphia Hotel, Philadelphia, PA, Aug 12, 2005 Online <PDF>. 2019-04-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p23162_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: This paper considers advertising as a form of practical expertise, and interprets professionals’ actions as efforts to establish the authority of such knowledge. The context of post-socialist Eastern Europe, with socialist legacies as its distinguishing element, provides a new perspective on the global organization of markets and professions. In their project to fashion a new professional identity, socialist and post-socialist generations of Hungarian advertising professionals fight against each other to define relevant expertise. Multiple myths of the West are used by young ad experts to promote the profession’s independence from the market. Their attempts are undermined by the economic necessities of advertising that require cooperation with other market players. Brokerage of the West is challenged chiefly by the older generation’s resolute market discourse. Moreover, Hungary’s relative insignificance in the global market problematizes the ideal of the West, and provides space for locals to challenge the dominance of international agencies. Struggles over definitions of advertising expertise demonstrate the ongoing shifts in the relations of power within the profession.

2006 - American Sociological Association Pages: 21 pages || Words: 7681 words || 
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5. Craig, Ailsa. "What Is a Poet? On (not) Being a Profession" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Montreal Convention Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, Aug 10, 2006 Online <PDF>. 2019-04-19 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p105358_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Poetry is a career with no necessary institutional affiliation. Drawing from interview and ethnographic data this paper uses Abbot's work on jursidictions in the field of professions, and Stebbins analysis of the system of relations between amateurs and professionals to provide a better sociological understanding of poets. Seeing poetry as a 'calling' accepts too many of the romantic misrecognitions of the field and does not allow for adequate analysis. In addition, this paper proposes the concept of 'symbiotic careers' to better understand how artistic careers are interwoven with necessary work outside of the arts.

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