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1. Williams, Charlie., Cowling, Otto., Stringer, Fred., Barker, Lori., Rogers, Mike. and Drewry, Richard. "Biomass Medium-BTU Hydrocarbon Fuel Gas Generator Application Project. (Poultry Litter Energy Conversion Project)" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION SOCIETY, Saddlebrook Resort, Tampa, Florida, Jul 21, 2007 <Not Available>. 2018-09-21 <>
Publication Type: Poster Presentation
Abstract: The purpose of this Conservation Innovation Grant Project is to convert biomass, specifically chicken litter, into an energy source that can be easily used by producers. This addresses the CIG component concerns of Natural Resources, Atmospheric Resources, and Bio-based energy opportunities. It accomplishes this by providing a renewable source of energy for the producer, reducing the country’s use of and dependence on fossil fuels (foreign petroleum), reducing the producer’s energy expenses, and demonstrating a method to protect water resources by reducing the amount of nutrients applied in nutrient surplus watersheds.
An innovative technology has recently been developed that will help address the natural resource concern of foreign petroleum consumption as well as air and water quality and agricultural practices. This new technology has been incorporated into a unique patented device called a “Noah” unit. The “Noah” unit accepts biomass and agricultural waste as input which it converts to a medium-BTU (over 600 BTUs per cubic foot) hydrocarbon fuel gas suitable for most uses similar to natural gas. The unit produces only one other output besides the fuel gas, which is an ash that, when using chicken litter, is equivalent to a 3-3.5-7 non-toxic fertilizer, suitable for vegetables and pasture. This project is to install 4 “Noah” units on poultry farms in the major poultry producing areas in Arkansas. The NOAH units convert chicken litter to fuel for generators that will supply the electrical needs of four to six broiler houses. Excess electricity may be supplied into the grid.

2011 - RSA Annual Meeting Words: 105 words || 
2. Meyer, Paul Ernest. "Emblematica Online Project : A Joint Digitization Project of The Herzog August Bibliothek, Wolfenbüttel, and the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the RSA Annual Meeting, Hilton Montreal Bonaventure Hotel, Montreal, Quebec Canada, <Not Available>. 2018-09-21 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Starting in Fall of 2009 The Emblematica Online project, a joint venture between the Herzog August Bibliothek in Wolfenbüttel, Germany and the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, has been digitizing the combined early modern emblem collections of both libraries. The size of the resulting combined digital collection is approximately 800 emblem books. A particular focus of this project has been the German emblem database consisting of roughly 200 emblem books of German origin. This paper is a discussion of the various processes involved in the creation of these new instruments for the study of emblems along with a description of how they can be utilized.

2012 - Southern Political Science Association Words: 296 words || 
3. Aitalieva, Nurgul. "Cooperative Benchmarking Projects: The Case of the Tennessee Municipal Benchmarking Project" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Southern Political Science Association, Hotel InterContinental, New Orleans, Louisiana, <Not Available>. 2018-09-21 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: In this research, I am examining what effect the Tennessee Municipal Benchmarking Project (TMBP) has had on performance of their participating cities. The goal of the TMBP is to evaluate the performance of a group of Tennessee (TN) cities by comparing the efficiency and effectiveness of a set of common services and to begin the long process of identifying and sharing the “best practices” of the participant cities with other local governments. Most of the practitioners believe that if applied properly, benchmarking gives participants a stimulus for improvement.
As of today, there is a lack of systematic study of the effectiveness of benchmarking programs in the public sector. Most of the studies rely on survey results and reflect respondents’ perceptions of the effectiveness of the program. Two studies developed by Mark C. William (2005) and David N. Ammons (2009) are examples of some efforts to discern data patterns of the North Carolina (NC) municipal benchmarking project over time.
This study uses the methods developed by Ammons (2009) in his study of the NC Benchmarking Project. Particular focus in this research involves assessing how service quality levels and local service delivery conditions affect service performance and costs across participating cities. The research questions guiding this analysis are similar to Ammon’s study: Did participants as a whole improve performance over time? Were gains in efficiency offset by losses in the quality and effectiveness of service, and vice versa? Did performance variance among participants on a given measure decline over time? Do data suggest that some participants improved performance more than others? The objective of this paper is to conduct a longitudinal analysis of the types, uses, and decision applications of benchmarking data in residential refuse collection and disposal, police services, and fire services of the TN Benchmarking project.

2013 - 57th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society Words: 418 words || 
4. Liu, Baocun. "From Project 211 to Project 2011: A Policy Analysis of the Higher Education Reform in China" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 57th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society, Hilton Riverside Hotel, New Orleans, LA, Mar 10, 2013 <Not Available>. 2018-09-21 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: From Project 211 to Project 2011: A Policy Analysis of the Higher Education Reform in China

Higher education in China has been undergoing dramatic changes during the past 20 years. On the one hand, China has established the largest higher education system in the world, providing more higher education opportunities to senior high school graduates. On the other hand, China launched Project 211, Project 985 and Project 2011 to build world class universities and promote the quality of higher education as well as the transition from a country of huge human resources to a country of strong human resources.
Project 211, started from 1993, aims to build 100 universities and key disciplines in the 21st century, with key disciplines, public service system and overall conditions as its priorities. Project 985 , started from 1998, aims to build some world-class universities and high-level universities , with mechanism innovation, faculty development, research centers construction, supporting resources , international exchange and cooperation as its main tasks. Project 2011, started in 2012, aims to promote mechanism reform of higher education institutions and improve their innovation competence in education, research and discipline. Project 2011 is the expansion and development of Project 211 and Project 985. Project 211 and Project 985 give more priority to disciplines, talents training and research centers construction to promote the development within the campuses while Project 2011 gives more priority to mechanism reform of the universities to promote the collaborative innovation among the university, research institution and enterprises. The three projects are different but connected. The development from Project 211, Project 985 to Project 2011 reflects the different demands and strategies at different stages of higher education in China.
The goal of the research is to examine the development of the higher education reform policy in China, focusing on the three important projects, analyze the differences and relationship among them. The research will be based on the government documents, data from Ministry of Education. Policy analysis and comparative study will be used in the research. The data will be analyzed from the view of the Triple Helix Theory of Henry Etzkowitz and Loet Leydesdoff.
The development from Project 211, Project 985 to Project 2011, reflects the characteristics of higher education reform in China. At different stages of higher education development, China makes different policies to solve different problems and achieve different goals. At the beginning of Project 2011, China is facing with some challenges and problems. Thus the research will also put forward some suggestions to the governments and the universities.

2012 - The Law and Society Association Words: 499 words || 
5. Yearby, Ruqaiijah. "The Issue of Race and the Potential Dangers of the Genome Project of Africa and the "Phenome" Project" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The Law and Society Association, Hilton Hawaiian Village Resort, Honolulu, HI, Jun 03, 2012 <Not Available>. 2018-09-21 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: One central purpose of genetic research is to determine specific genotypes associated with diseases. Most thought that the Human Genome Project Race put to rest that race accounts for significant genetic difference among humans, which accounts for disparities in disease. Yet, race still remains central in genetic research. The Genome Project of Africa and the ‘phenome’ project illustrate the perils of the continued use of race in genetic research.

Recently announced, the Genome Project of Africa has several goals, including using new research tools to help us understand the relationship between genes and the environment, in health and disease and building capacity on the African continent so that African researchers can conduct these kinds of studies. The project is potentially beneficial because it will be easier to delineate the genetic variants linked to diseases that predominate in Africa. However, the project may also perpetuate colonial racialized notions that one group of Africans is more superior or civilized to another based on genetic differences.

Although the organizers recognized that research in the past had been in a colonial mode of doing science because the research has been done in Africa and then the byproducts have been transported to other countries, I suggest that some of the new forms of research such as the Genome Project in African continue this colonial mode by the structure of the research, the statements made by researchers and the explicit and implicit goals of the research.

For example, racialized theories of superiority and civilization are the basis for the division of Africa into Northern and Sub-Saharan Africa. The Genome Project is concentrating only on Sub-Saharan Africa, even though Northern Africans are affected by the same environmental factors. The belief of inferiority/superiority is also apparent in statements made by the key organizers of the project and the overall ideology of the project.

In a public meeting announcing the program, one organizer stated that “if you look at science and genetics, most of the research is coming from Africa, and indeed not led by African scientists, I don’t think that’s because of lack of intellectual capacity, but not having the resources to do that at the present time.” Discussing any ethnic or racial populations' intellectual ability is a eugenics idea that ethnic and racial groups are innately inferior. It is ironic that this statement was made about the ability of Africans to be scientist, when the project is partnering with African scientists. Moreover, the genome project has shown that the differences among ethnicities and races is minute, yet those organizing the genome project in Africa still harbor this belief that there is some difference in intellect linked to ethnicity or race. Although the speaker seems to discount the possible inferiority of Africans, by raising the issue at all means that some believe that it is relevant and maybe used as an explanation if the project fails to accomplish the task to train Africans or build capacity.

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