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2010 - Theory vs. Policy? Connecting Scholars and Practitioners Words: 35 words || 
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1. Wurm, Iris. "Democracy-Promotion vs. Stability-Promotion. US-Democracy Promotion in Pakistan" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Theory vs. Policy? Connecting Scholars and Practitioners, New Orleans Hilton Riverside Hotel, The Loews New Orleans Hotel, New Orleans, LA, Feb 17, 2010 <Not Available>. 2018-09-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p415445_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: After Musharrafs coup, the United States reacted by prohibiting all U.S. economic and military aid towards Pakistan, but, following 9/11, President Bush waived the “democracy sanctions”: Because of Pakistan’s geopolitical situation as neighbour to Afghani

2010 - Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication Pages: unavailable || Words: 7178 words || 
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2. Chambers, Barbara. and Matthews, Curtis B.. "Promoting the Promoters Online: How Ad Agencies Use Corporate Websites to Promote Their Services" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication, The Denver Sheraton, Denver, CO, Aug 04, 2010 Online <PDF>. 2018-09-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p434919_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Smaller advertising agencies have not typically been the focus of academic research, but they often face obstacles to promoting their own services. The Web provides an interactive environment for promoting expertise. This study used content analysis to examine 79 mid-sized agency websites to determine the prevalence of features such as text, feedback, multi-media, navigation, new media, and brand loyalty. Agencies with more resources had more interactive websites and used more social media for agency promotion.

2012 - BISA-ISA JOINT INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE "DIVERSITY IN THE DISCIPLINE: TENSION OR OPPORTUNITY IN RESPONDING TO GLOBAL" Words: 707 words || 
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3. Kurki, Milja. "Critical theory, normativity and democracy promotion: from the ‘is’ to the ‘ought’ in democracy promotion practice?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the BISA-ISA JOINT INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE "DIVERSITY IN THE DISCIPLINE: TENSION OR OPPORTUNITY IN RESPONDING TO GLOBAL", Old Town district of Edinburgh, Edinburgh Scotland UK, Jun 20, 2012 <Not Available>. 2018-09-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p599512_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The democracy promotion of the US, the EU and most NGOs today proceeds for the most part through the assumption that a liberal democratic conception of democracy (conceived to entail free and fair elections, constitutional protection of minorities and rights of expression, association and representation, and a thriving civil society) is the model of democracy that modern polities should aim for. The donor policies try to facilitate the adoption of liberal democracy – more specifically or more broadly conceived. They can facilitate this through institutional governance support, legal reform projects or civil society assistance.
Interestingly, however, the contestability of the idea of democracy is taken into account in fairly minimal ways, if at all, in the practice of democracy support, even today amidst the backlash against democracy support and the financial crisis, which has thrown up in the air many firmly held ideas on democracy and economic governance. While superficial references to the ‘contested’ nature of the meaning of democracy are made today by democracy promoters, their concrete practices work on the basis, and are measured on the assumption that, donors ‘know’ what ‘democracy’ is. Indeed, if we didn’t, how could we ‘promote’ ‘it’?
Such a treatment of democracy leaves out the potential for normative debate on the meaning of democracy in democracy promotion and democratisation processes – it veers towards a ‘factual’ and ‘normatively fixed’ interpretation of democracy’s meaning. We know what democracy is (assumed fact) and we know that this produces the most stable and prosperous polities (assumed fact). The delivery instruments through which democracy aid is delivered reinforces these trends: democracy is advanced through a set of clear criteria and objectively measurable assessment benchmarks. Best practice and ‘efficient’ delivery mechanisms and management tools constitute a key aspect of ‘democracy aid’ today.
Yet, this ‘factually-obsessed’ way is not the only way to treat the concept of democracy – a concept which in its origins is of a deeply contested and normative nature. I argue here that more normatively-attuned debate on democracy should and can take place in democracy support practice and that critical theoretical interventions are important in bringing this out. There is a need to today – in the context of the multiplication of debates on the meaning of democracy – to move towards more systematic engagement with the multiple, normative and politico-economically wide-ranging sets of meaning of the idea of democracy.
Critical theory reminds us that concepts matter: that specific interpretations of the meanings of concepts always reveal specific ideological and philosophical systems of thought and are never ‘neutral’. With this in mind, we need to pay attention to how democracy is understood by democracy promoters today – even as they emphasise the neutral and factually fixed nature of the models of democracy they work with. With this in mind, we also need to bear in mind the insights of democratic theorists.
For them, the values and institutions of liberal democracy, whatever their many benefits, are never neutral but always reflect and embed particular sets of ideological understandings and power relations in society. Moreover, since democracy is a contested concept democratic theorists remind us that normative debate between various different democratic visions – for example, liberal democratic, social democratic, participatory democratic, radical democratic, global democratic – is quite natural, historically and ethically. This is because democracy, at base, is not an ‘objective’ technical mechanism but rather a contested ethical principle. This means that democratisation and democracy promotion, ideally, require more than technical support to institutions; they entail the need for critical, reflexive and dialogical engagement with the idea of democracy and its multiple possible meanings. Post-positivist, norm/fact-bridging approaches, in sum, are needed for credible democracy support.
This paper asks: is the meaning of democracy in democracy support today too fixed and how can more flexible debate on democracy’s meaning, and this ‘ought-questions’ about various possible end points of democracy promotion be promoted? Also, I ask: What are the consequences of bridging the fact-value distinction, pointed to by many critical democratic theorists, for thinking about the policy practice of democracy promotion? What concrete consequences arise for policy, as well as academic thinking, from such revisions? Should democracy promotion practitioners become better ‘democratic theorists’, rather than focusing on administration of democracy aid, in order to be credible today?
Supporting Publications:
Supporting Document
Supporting Document

2006 - International Communication Association Pages: 24 pages || Words: 10434 words || 
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4. McDowell, Stephen. "States and Civil Society Groups: Canada’s Promotion of Cultural Diversity and UNESCO’s Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, Dresden International Congress Centre, Dresden, Germany, Jun 16, 2006 Online <PDF>. 2018-09-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p91727_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: The paper traces relationships between the Government of Canada and civil society organizations in moving forward the development of the UNESCO Cultural Diversity Convention, which was approved at the UNESCO General Assembly of October 2005. The Convention addresses key issue sin communication and culture, focusing on the promotion of national and sub-national spheres for communication and cultural exchange, as well as the promotion of human rights and the international exchange of ideas. Have the policies and proposals to promote cultural diversity changed as the forum for discussion of the issue has moved from the International Network on Cultural Policy to UNESCO? Have the roles of civil society groups, international organizations changed over this time. In what ways has the Government of Canada’s input and role changed with this shift? In what ways has the input of civil society groups, especially that of the Canadian-based International Network for Cultural Diversity, and the Coalition for Cultural Diversity, changed in the last three years? The paper compares a number of proposals, draft texts for the convention, and critiques of draft texts to illustrate approaches to a number of the key issues at stake in the formation of this convention.

2006 - American Political Science Association Pages: 38 pages || Words: 10319 words || 
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5. Zehavi, Amos. "Welfare State Recalibration and the Faith Based Initiative: Promoting Faith or Promoting Welfare?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Marriott, Loews Philadelphia, and the Pennsylvania Convention Center, Philadelphia, PA, Aug 31, 2006 <Not Available>. 2018-09-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p152213_index.html>
Publication Type: Proceeding
Abstract: Abstract
Historically, faith-based organizations made important contributions in the field of social provision, but with the advent of the modern welfare state, their role diminished dramatically. This article examines and explains the renewed interest in the United States and Britain in publicly funded faith-based social provision. Despite significant differences between the two countries, their governments have endorsed strikingly similar faith-based initiatives that have institutionalized the relationship between the state and faith-based organizations. This study explains the emergence of faith-based initiatives as one component of welfare state restructuring, and more specifically, as a response to the growing problem of minority’ social exclusion in urban areas. Finally, the article explores the possibility of the policy’s spread to other countries.

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