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2005 - American Society of Criminology Words: 150 words || 
1. Sarma, Kiran. "Justifying terrorist actions through propaganda campaigns: Defensive propaganda and the Provisional IRA" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology, Royal York, Toronto, Nov 15, 2005 <Not Available>. 2020-01-26 <>
Publication Type: Roundtable
Abstract: The IRA’s training manual, the Green Book, stresses the importance of preparing their sympathetic audiences for impending attacks through propaganda campaigns that vilify the intended target and otherwise support the moral legitimacy of the action. Such ‘defensive propaganda’ creates the conditions in which a population with normal moral values can either support or be apathetic towards terrorist actions. Or drawing on Bandurian terms, the strategy facilitates the community’s moral disengagement from an inherently immoral action and in doing so protects the popular support upon which the republican movement relies for its military and political existence. This paper examines the IRA’s use of defensive propaganda against members of their sympathetic community and introduces a conceptual model for understanding the structure of such campaigns. In doing so it deals with the different forms of media and Arts employed by the organisation and the factors that promote or erode the message content.

2014 - Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication Pages: unavailable || Words: 11584 words || 
2. Myers, Cayce. "Reevaluating Propaganda in PR History: An Analysis of Propaganda in the Press 1810 to 1918" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication, Le Centre Sheraton, Montreal, Canada, Aug 06, 2014 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2020-01-26 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Analysis of U.S. press coverage of propaganda indicates that the term propaganda had a largely negative connotation in the nineteenth and early twentieth century. Propaganda’s association with religious, political, and grassroots organizations are identified and discussed. This analysis concludes that Edward Bernays’s assertion that propaganda was a neutral term for PR practice prior to 1918 is inaccurate. Implications for PR historiography are discussed.

2017 - ASEEES Convention Words: 198 words || 
3. Smolkin, Victoria. "Subversive Voices: Religious Propaganda and Atheist Counter-Propaganda in the Soviet Borderlands" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ASEEES Convention, Chicago Marriott Downtown Magnificent Mile, Chicago, IL, <Not Available>. 2020-01-26 <>
Publication Type: Panel Paper
Abstract: The return of religion to politics and public life in the 1970s is one of the most significant, and unexpected, developments in contemporary history. Religion became both visible and politically contested on the world stage, appearing in diverse contexts - from the rise of the Religious Right in in the U.S., to the religious mobilization around human rights, to the Vatican’s election of a Polish Pope in 1978 and his visit to Poland in 1979, to the Islamic revolution in Iran in 1979. Even though these developments originated beyond Soviet borders, they pressed uncomfortably close against them, creating the fear that religious propaganda would infect Soviet citizens, especially those concentrated along the Soviet borders, such as Catholics in Lithuania and western Ukraine, and Muslims in Central Asia. By the 1980s, the religious question again became an urgent political concern for the Soviet establishment, since the return of religion to public life revealed that religion still had the potential to mobilize society to political action, especially where it overlapped with national identity. This paper will analyze the religious factor in anti-communist propaganda, and the counter-propaganda measures deployed by the Soviet state to address and counteract religious influences from abroad.

2008 - APSA 2008 Annual Meeting Pages: 36 pages || Words: 11578 words || 
4. Kennis, Andrew. "Indexing State-Corporate Propaganda? An Evaluation of the Propaganda and Indexing Models from Coverage of Fallujah Broadcasted on CNN and CNN en Español" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the APSA 2008 Annual Meeting, Hynes Convention Center, Boston, Massachusetts, Aug 28, 2008 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2020-01-26 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript

2018 - ICA's 68th Annual Conference Words: 175 words || 
5. Chernobrov, Dmitry. and Briant, Emma. "Competing Propagandas: Russian and US Mutual Representation of Propaganda Efforts" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ICA's 68th Annual Conference, Hilton Prague, Prague, Czech Republic, <Not Available>. 2020-01-26 <>
Publication Type: Session Paper
Abstract: Amid resurgent international tensions following the Ukraine crisis and 2016 US election, both US and Russia expanded their propaganda efforts. Although propaganda studies have gained in both academic relevance and public discourse with calls for governments to respond to ‘threats’ from fake news and propaganda, there has been little academic exploration of how this is discussed as a topic by the media or represented by governments. How propaganda activities by states and other actors are framed and legitimated has become increasingly important amid claims of a ‘post-truth’ world. This paper asks how Russia and the United States represent each other’s and their own propaganda, its threat and power, and how the two establish and legitimate the boundaries of political and historical knowledge that can be questioned. We examine how propaganda is discussed by Public Diplomacy media in the case studies of Radio Free Europe (RFE) and RT America. The paper draws on discourse analysis of online articles and official documents, as well as on interviews with journalists and key Public Diplomacy professionals.

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