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2016 - PMENA-38 Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
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1. Nagar, Gal., Weiland, Travis., Brown, Rachael., Orrill, Chandra. and Burke, James. "APPROPRIATENESS OF PROPORTIONAL REASONING: TEACHERS’ KNOWLEDGE USED TO IDENTIFY PROPORTIONAL SITUATIONS" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the PMENA-38, JW Marriott Starr Pass Resort, Tucson, AZ, Nov 03, 2016 Online <APPLICATION/VND.OPENXMLFORMATS-OFFICEDOCUMENT.WORDPROCESSINGML.DOCUMENT>. 2019-08-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1133959_index.html>
Publication Type: Research Report
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: We investigated to what extent middle school teachers were able to appropriately identify proportional situations when presented with various mathematical structures. We also explored if there were any relationships among attributes of the teachers and ability to identify proportional situations. Interestingly, the only strong relationship was between teachers’ awareness of their knowledge of mathematics and their ability to identify proportional situations. Teachers were found to correctly identify proportional situations significantly more often than non-proportional situations. Nearly a third of the teachers misidentified non-proportional linear situations as proportional. Further analysis revealed knowledge teachers used, with varying success, to identify proportional situations.

2012 - North American Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education Pages: unavailable || Words: 2200 words || 
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2. Orrill, Chandra. and Burke, James. "Proportions, Relations, and Proportional Relationships: One Teacher’s Navigation Between Professional Development and Personal Knowledge" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the North American Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education, Radisson Hotel, Kalamazoo, MI, Nov 01, 2012 Online <PDF>. 2019-08-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p571539_index.html>
Publication Type: Brief Research Report
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: We report an exploratory study considering how one teacher made sense of professional development related to proportions. We consider this from the perspective of knowledge in pieces, paying attention to the organization of the teacher’s knowledge as it related to the structure of the content in the PD. Implications for the design of PD are discussed.

2005 - Southern Political Science Association Pages: 37 pages || Words: 9847 words || 
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3. Hamill, Jeffrey. "Does PR keep its Promise?: New Zealand under majoritarian and proportional representation" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Southern Political Science Association, Inter-Continental Hotel, New Orleans, LA, Jan 06, 2005 <Not Available>. 2019-08-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p66893_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Abstract

Electoral system change is a rare occurrence in established democracies, but when it does happen scholars must be ready to take advantage of the opportunity. New Zealand presents one of these interesting opportunities. Long considered the classic example of a British, Westminster-type majoritarian democracy, New Zealand changed its electoral system to a more proportional mixed-member system in 1996. Previous research has suggested that voters in proportional systems are happier, more satisfied, better represented, and connected with their government than under majoritarian systems. Using data from New Zealand before and after the electoral system change, I test whether this is the case. Following previous logic, voters should feel more connected with their government after this change. My study focuses on third party voters, who were previously underrepresented in New Zealand under majoritarian governments. I use external political efficacy to measure whether voters are more connected with their government. Results from the study are surprising. The relationship between voting for a third party and political remains negative even after the electoral system change. Reasons for this relationship are discussed in the study.

2005 - Southern Political Science Association Pages: 19 pages || Words: 8090 words || 
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4. Setzler, Mark. "THE USE OF GENDER QUOTAS IN OPEN-LIST PROPORTIONAL REPRESENTATION ELECTORAL SYSTEMS: ELECTING WOMEN IN BRAZIL" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Southern Political Science Association, Inter-Continental Hotel, New Orleans, LA, Jan 06, 2005 <Not Available>. 2019-08-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p66946_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: While previous research using cross-national studies has concluded that closed list electoral systems are more favorable to women than those that allow candidates’ individual vote totals to determine who wins legislative seats, an analysis of approximately 1700 districts from Brazil’s 2000 municipal elections shows conclusively that female candidates can compete successfully within PR systems using open lists provided that they can get on the ballot. The electoral studies literature mostly has emphasized four means by which democratic societies can make their electoral systems more favorable to the election of women: adopting PR rather than single member district electoral systems, increasing the number of seats per district, implementing gender-based quotas for party nominations, and—in the case of systems that already have gender quota legislation—strengthening the enforcement of nomination quotas. The present study uncovers two additional mechanisms that increase female candidacy rates: the presence of additional political parties and raising the number of candidates nominated per party. Controlling for district-level variations in socioeconomic development, the electoral strength of Brazil’s dominant leftist party, district magnitude, and party magnitude, OLS regression models indicate that that an increase in either the number of parties contesting an election or in the number of candidates nominated by each party in a district leads to improved ballot access for women even in settings where gender quotas are not being rigorously met. Boosting the overall number of parties, however, is ultimately less beneficial to women than raising the number of candidacies per party (and requiring that the parties actually fill their nominations). While both circumstances lead to higher female candidacy rates, increases in the number of parties tend to result in only the strongest candidates from each party being elected, a situation that generally works against the ability of women candidates to win seats in systems that use OLPR.

2006 - The Law and Society Association Words: 128 words || 
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5. Davidov, Guy. "The Principle of Proportionality in Israeli Labor and Employment Law: Crossing the Public/Private Divide" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The Law and Society Association, Jul 04, 2006 <Not Available>. 2019-08-20 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p125502_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: The principle of proportionality is commonly used in constitutional and administrative law as a legal tool to define the boundaries of public authorities' actions. Over the past two decades, the same principle has gradually achieved prominence in Israel in the sphere of labour and employment law as well. Often this is not explicit, but the paper will show how in practice the proportionality tests are being applied in various labour and employment contexts, in the "private" sphere as well. It will be argued that this development is welcomed and justified; the use of the proportionality tests should continue, albeit in a more explicit and structured way. At the same time, the paper will trace the limits of this legal tool when used in the context of employment relations.

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