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2013 - The Law and Society Association Words: 411 words || 
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1. Woodward, Jennifer. "The “Orphan” Provision: Early Enforcement of the Sex Provision of Title VII" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The Law and Society Association, Sheraton Boston Hotel, Boston, MA, May 30, 2013 <Not Available>. 2020-01-24 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p645683_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Individual claims and interest groups played an important role in the first legal developments of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the institutional development of the agency created to enforce the law, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. During the first three years of the agency, a third of claims made under Title VII were on the basis of sex and in these claims individuals presented consistent interpretations of the sex provision of Title VII as creating equal employment opportunity on the basis of sex, including overturning state laws that restricted the working conditions of women. These claims placed issues related to the sex provision on the agenda of the agency, much as individuals place issues on the courts agenda. Yet, bureaucratic politics, the institutional culture of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, complex legal questions presented by claimants, and lack of an interest group to advocate for enforcement of the sex provisions led to the denial and delay of sex based claims. When efforts inside the government failed to resolve the disparity, the National Organization for Women formed in response to these delays and denials to ensure that the “orphan” sex provision would find a home at the agency and within the law. Rather than focus on the weakness of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission or why the agency turned to the courts to interpret and enforce the law, like prior scholarship on the agency, this paper focuses on the role that individual claimants, employees of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, and National Organization for Women played in forming the first interpretations of Title VII law. Using qualitative methods, including an analysis of archival documents from the National Archives, Library of Congress and Schlesinger Library, I test the applicability of law and society theories related to the relationship between individuals, interest groups and the courts to different venue - a government agency. Through an in-depth study of the first three years of Title VII implementation (1965-1968), the paper demonstrates the potential of individuals to place issues on an agency agenda and interpret new legal rights before they reach the courts. By exploring the interactions between the National Organization for Women and the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission as it formed alongside the agency, this paper also discusses how agency actions can lead to interest group formation which can influence the legal interpretations and future directions of a law and explores the potential of agency actions to create social change.

2010 - Theory vs. Policy? Connecting Scholars and Practitioners Words: 41 words || 
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2. Rofe, J. Simon. "'Information is the Oxygen of the Modern Age,' Contrast of Provision: Integrating Information Communication Technologies into International Relations Provision" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Theory vs. Policy? Connecting Scholars and Practitioners, New Orleans Hilton Riverside Hotel, The Loews New Orleans Hotel, New Orleans, LA, Feb 17, 2010 <Not Available>. 2020-01-24 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p415546_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Ronald Reagan, continued, "it (information) seeps through the walls topped my barbed wire, it wafts across the electrified borders". Such evocative rhetoric was typical of the 40th President of the United States and speaks to the power of information in t

2004 - American Political Science Association Pages: 33 pages || Words: 8044 words || 
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3. Feiock, Richard., Lamothe, Scott. and Lamothe, Meeyoung. "Vertical Integration in Municipal Service Provision:" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Hilton Chicago and the Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, IL, Sep 02, 2004 <Not Available>. 2020-01-24 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p60373_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Tremendous attention has been given to the use of alternative service delivery mechanisms by which local governments contract with private for-profit or nonprofit firms to deliver services. What has gone virtually unnoticed is that many of these arrangements experienced “vertical integration of production” where the service is taken in-house by the providing government.

Building on three typologies of service characteristics that are prominent in the literature, we examine whether vertical integration is systemically associated with certain types of goods and test whether the likelihood of vertical integration increases when mismatches occur between the service types and the modes of service delivery. Vertical integration can also be a response to market conditions, capacities for production and administration within government, or political, preferences of public decision makers. We view the vertical integration of services as more than the reverse of contracting out; it is the product of three distinct transaction problems relating to the characteristics of goods, production agents, and markets.

Empirical analysis of patterns of service production from 1997-2002 reveals that vertical integration of production is relatively more likely than additional contracting with private providers and almost as many services were brought in-house as contracted out in that period. The multivariate analysis reports finds services offered though joint production arrangements are most likely to be taken in house. The types of goods provide an incomplete explanation for local service delivery decisions; a more complete model highlights the role of jurisdiction level factors.

2003 - American Sociological Association Pages: 24 pages || Words: 5743 words || 
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4. Shieh, Ching-Yi. "Does Gendered Employment Inequality Affect Adult Children's Provision of Support to their Elderly Parents? An Examination on Late Middle Aged Generation" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Atlanta Hilton Hotel, Atlanta, GA, Aug 16, 2003 Online <.PDF>. 2020-01-24 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p107069_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Past studies widely accept the conclusion that adult sons usually provide monetary transfers to their elderly parents while adult daughters tend to dedicate their time as caregivers. However, discussions on why adult sons and daughters' adoption of different transfer patterns is an indication of household individuals responding to structural barriers are still limited. This paper integrates micro and macro research frameworks and argues that gender-biased labor force structure expands its influence from the societal level into the individual households thereby affects adult children's provision of support to their elderly parents. Because gendered wage market results in women's financial disadvantages relative to men and thus reduce their ability to provide monetary transfer to their parents, to make up for their low levels of financial transfer, women would use time transfers as a substitute. On the other hand, since men have a higher opportunity cost to forgo their paid jobs, they would choose to stay in the labor force and use monetary resource to replace for their care-giving labor. This study concludes that late-middle-aged women bear greater elderly care burden than their male counterparts do. To lessen women's multiple burden, men should also re-evaluate their own social roles and become more involved with their families.

2007 - American Sociological Association Pages: 20 pages || Words: 4947 words || 
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5. Avrahampour, Yally. "Economic Agency and the Reversal in Defined Benefit Pension Provision in the Post-War Era" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, TBA, New York, New York City, Aug 11, 2007 <Not Available>. 2020-01-24 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p184497_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: This paper applies White’s relational and constructivist economic sociology in explaining the rise and decline of UK defined benefit pension fund provision and associated changes in investment policy, over the past sixty years. It proposes an account of economic agency in which the agent (the pension fund manager or ‘PFM’) uses ambiguity to mediate between two principals with conflicting interests (shareholders and members). Three points of change deriving from the introduction of performance measures are associated with changing financial valuation frameworks and changing networks of professional advisors. This changing professional landscape enables and constrains the PFM’s ability to mediate between shareholders and members and is associated with the rise and decline of defined benefit pension provision.

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