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2015 - American Society of Criminology – 71st Annual Meeting Words: 123 words || 
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1. Shoff, Benjamin., Glazier, Mary. and Orr, Ryan. "Pulling It All Together: Evaluating the Lancaster Violent Crime Reduction Initiative “Pulling Levers” Strategy" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Criminology – 71st Annual Meeting, Washington Hilton, Washington, DC, Nov 18, 2015 <Not Available>. 2019-11-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1030862_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Paper
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This paper examines the impacts of the Lancaster Violent Crime Reduction Initiative (LVCRI), a focused deterrence project implemented from 2009-2014. Examination of six years of crime data showed minimal impact on target area crime rates. One-on-one interviews with key individuals involved with LVCRI provided a way to explore their perspectives on the underlying social and environmental factors that challenged the program's success and sustainability, Important themes that emerged from the interviews included lack of community involvement, episodic application of the program, lack of resources, the overall crime context of Lancaster, PA, and the social makeup of the city. Consideration of the obstacles the program faced, as identified by community leaders, provide an essential context for assessing the utility of a focused deterrence approach.

2010 - International Communication Association Pages: unavailable || Words: 8246 words || 
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2. Wojcieszak, Magdalena. "Pulling Towards or Pulling Away: Deliberation, Disagreement, and Opinion Strength in Political Participation" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, Suntec Singapore International Convention & Exhibition Centre, Suntec City, Singapore, Jun 22, 2010 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-11-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p402257_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Evidence supports two somewhat contradictory notions: deliberation is to encourage engagement, but disagreement may decrease participation. This study aims to provide a common denominator in the debate. It distinguishes between deliberation and political disagreement that emerges during deliberation to test which factors advance or thwart participatory goals. This study also accounts for opinion strength, which may moderate the tested relationships. This study draws on quasi experimental data from participants in structured, moderated and heterogeneous face-to-face deliberations on sexual minority rights in Poland (n = 181). Relative to the pre-test, deliberation discouraged moderates from active engagement and pulled moderates as well as strongly opinionated participants away from communicative participation. As predicted, strongly opinionated participants who perceived high disagreement intended to be more active than their counterparts in like-minded groups. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

2004 - American Sociological Association Pages: 25 pages || Words: 7944 words || 
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3. Esparza, Nicole. "Push-Pull Philanthropy: State, Market, and Institutional Effects on the Establishment of Company-Sponsored Foundations" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Hilton San Francisco & Renaissance Parc 55 Hotel, San Francisco, CA,, Aug 14, 2004 Online <.PDF>. 2019-11-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p108341_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Research on corporate philanthropy has largely focused on the relationship between the firm and the state, e.g., the influence of federal tax rates on corporate contributions. With few exceptions, little attention has been paid to institutional pressures on corporate giving. By incorporating hypotheses derived from both neoclassical and institutional theories, this paper seeks to explain the creation of company-sponsored foundations among Fortune 500 firms, 1950-2000. In this study, 1,523 firms are analyzed using a discrete-time logit model to estimate the hazard rate for establishing a company-sponsored foundation. I find that the inception of company-sponsored foundations is driven not only by tax policies and market forces, but can be explained by institutional pressures such as peer influence, press coverage, and public perception.

2006 - American Sociological Association Pages: 20 pages || Words: 9118 words || 
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4. Carter, Christine. "Dinnertime Practices and the Pull of Work: Parenting Ideologies, Practices and Children’s Well-Being" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Montreal Convention Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, Aug 10, 2006 Online <PDF>. 2019-11-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p104886_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Many writers in sociology have used “ideologies” to characterize the differing belief systems people employ, especially when it comes to parenting (e.g., Hertz 1997). Fewer writers have considered how these ideologies work in practice—leaving the impression that most of them serve as an uncomplicated guide to behavior, modified with resignation by resource constraints or other external conditions. Arlie Russell Hochschild’s The Second Shift (1989) is an important exception, where the ideologies of her subjects serve as a motive for self-deception. How are ideologies used by parents to guide their parenting practices at dinnertime and beyond? Moreover, how do these ideologies and the resulting parenting practices seem to be influencing the well-being of children within the families?
I conducted a qualitative study with parents and their 11 to 18 year old children regarding the ways in which ideologies influence parenting practices. This paper focuses on the three parenting ideologies that did not seem to be serving children well: a stay-at-home ideology in severe conflict with both parents’ paid labor; economic rationality applied to parenting; and the parent as material provider in absence of an emotional care-giver. I conclude by looking at how dinnertime practices help to shape the symbolic form of the family and by glimpsing the parenting ideology (shared parenting work) that produced dinnertime practices that did seem to be serving children well.

2007 - The Law and Society Association Words: 153 words || 
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5. Knieper, Rolf. "Pulls and Pushes of Legal Reform along the Silk Road" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The Law and Society Association, TBA, Berlin, Germany, Jul 24, 2007 <Not Available>. 2019-11-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p200236_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: After some 15 years of legal and judicial reform of various degrees in newly created and independent post-soviet States and an intensive practical involvement of the author, the paper wants to explore
-the motivation of different actors and institutions on all sides: host countries, their governments, enterprises, judiciary etc, donor countries, development agencies;
-the initiation, procedure and substance of the reform process;
-the possibilities, potential and constraints of legal reform by legal transplants ;
-the necessities of co-operation between external and internal experts as well as external and internal institutions;
-the prerequisites of a transformation of “law in the books” to “law in practice”.

On all accounts serious questions are raised and the appreciation varies: Has this second big “movement” of “law and development” learned the lessons of the first one? Is it fair to say that again the “movement” is doomed to fail? Are there structural reasons which militate against international legal co-operation and transfer of law?

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