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2013 - Association for Slavic, East European and Eurasian Studies 45th Annual Convention Words: 48 words || 
1. Case, Holly. "Burning Questions: The 1830s and the Shared Origins of the Eastern Question, the Jewish Question, and the Polish Question" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Slavic, East European and Eurasian Studies 45th Annual Convention, Boston Marriott Copley Place, Boston, MA, <Not Available>. 2020-02-25 <>
Publication Type: Panel Paper
Abstract: The 19th century is the century of questions. It saw the emergence of the Eastern Question, the Jewish Question and the Polish Question. Why did these questions emerge roughly at the same time in the 1830s and what does their emergence reveal about Europe's history of the time?

2008 - NCA 94th Annual Convention Words: 184 words || 
2. Paine, Richard. "The Question is the Question: Analyzing the Value of Requiring Research Questions in Competitive Forensics" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the NCA 94th Annual Convention, TBA, San Diego, CA, <Not Available>. 2020-02-25 <>
Publication Type: Invited Paper
Abstract: It has become common practice for forensics competitors, during the introductory sections of their speeches, to pose a research question which functions in many ways like a thesis for the speech and purports to provide a direction for the analysis and conclusions which follow. But are these research questions meaningful, or are they simply a convention which misrepresents the actual nature of the competitive speech? This paper will examine this question by considering such issues as: (1) the history of using research questions in competitive communication analysis, (2) a comparison and contrast of the nature and roles of research questions in competitive vs. other scholarly writing, (3) the degree to which research questions clarify vs. distort the analytical flow of speeches, (4) the impact of rhetorical questions on the other elements of competitive speeches (choice of methodology, application of method, drawing of conclusions), (5) the tendency of research questions to enhance vs. damage the quality of analysis conducted by forensics competitors, and (6) an assessment of the impact/significance of this issue on students preparing for advanced study in the communication discipline.

2018 - Northeastern Political Science Association Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
3. Sotiriu, Sabrina. "The Question of the Question: the Role of Ballot-Box Questions in Independence Referenda" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Northeastern Political Science Association, Bonaventure Hotel, Montreal, Canada, Jan 08, 2018 Online <PDF>. 2020-02-25 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: While a lot of ink has been spilled on independence referenda in recent decades, individual characteristics of referenda have seldom been the focus of research in comparative politics. In my paper I look at the role of ballot-box questions, specifically on the notion of independence in the 2014 Scottish case, and in the 1995 Quebec referendum, but more broadly on the debate in each case. While recent literature argues that the question has no effect/importance in independence referenda (Rocher & Lecours, 2018), in my paper through discourse analysis on a wide number of speeches given by leaders of each camp in the two referenda I look for evidence on the discursive role of the question in the two debates – if it distracts from touching on policies, identity etc and if at all shapes the meaning of independence presented in the two referendum questions that voters ultimately voted on.

I conclude that while the academic literature may agree/propose that the question does not matter (by comparison with other factors), politically however it is a very important and useful tool instrumentalized by whichever campaign can benefit from using it to score media attention, derail the debate from the messages of their opponents, or persuade/dissuade voters. As such it should not be discredited as less important, since a lot of time was spent decrying the long, unclear question in the 1995 referendum in Quebec, as well as negotiating and approving a short, clear question in the more recent attempt in Scotland.

2010 - NCA 96th Annual Convention Words: 346 words || 
4. Park, Innhwa. "Well-prefaced responses to alternatives questions: An examination on question-answer sequences in writing conferences" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the NCA 96th Annual Convention, Hilton San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, <Not Available>. 2020-02-25 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Using video recordings of one-on-one writing conferences as data, this study identifies practices through which pedagogy is achieved in interaction and aims to find new aspects of question-answer sequences. In particular, the study focuses on a particular type of student questions – alternative questions – and the way they are responded to by the teacher. There is a growing body of research focusing on different aspects of question-answer sequences including action formation, preference structure, and type-conformity (Brown & Levinson 1978; Clayman 2002; Heritage 1984; Raymond 2003; Steensig
& Drew 2008; Stivers & Robinson 2006). However, there is little research on alternative question-answer sequences as a focus of investigation (Koshik 2005).
Alternative questions proffer two or more differentiated propositions from which the recipient is asked to choose (Quirk et al., 1985, pp. 823-824). That is, alternative questions reduce the relevant response to the choice of options presented in the question. One of students’ alternative questions found in my data is as follows: What do you think I should do, the gender one or the: ((points to the paper)) this,. Unlike in ordinary conversations, such students’ alternative questions are often responded with teachers’ non-type-conforming answers. A close examination of such a sequence reveals that students put a narrow focus on the here-and-now issue and pursue a straightforward answer from teachers, asking them to make a final choice. Teachers, on the other hand, are more concerned with providing a generalizable lesson and engaging students in the pedagogical process. One of the ways in which teachers achieve such institutional goals is to respond with a well-prefaced multi-unit turn to students’ alternative questions. The turn initial “well” not only projects an upcoming non-straightforward answer (Schegloff & Lerner, 2009), but also claims a longer turn space to follow. Teachers use the turn space to make the sequence a teachable moment; they engage students in finding what each alternative entails and understanding the rationale behind the choice.
This study demonstrates how the occurrence of teaching and learning resides in interaction, and how the divergent perspectives between teachers and students get manifested in talk-in-interaction.

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