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2017 - Comparative and International Education Society CIES Annual Meeting Words: 919 words || 
1. Mccusker, Sean. "LEGO(R) Serious Play(R): thinking about intercultural and international education" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Comparative and International Education Society CIES Annual Meeting, Sheraton Atlanta Downtown, Atlanta, Georgia, Mar 05, 2017 <Not Available>. 2019-11-19 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Intercultural education has seen a huge increase in the past few decades, yet its substantive nature still remains undefined. There is broad consensus on fluidity of identities and cultures, and the promotion of intercultural dialogue. However, pedagogical practices to achieve this reach are not always convincing and have been criticised for maintaining existing hegemonies and unequal power relations (Gorski, 2008).
Interculturality is more than the simple fact of interaction between Cultural “Others”, and, in increasingly diverse higher education environments, there remains a need to find alternative approaches which encourage more participative and equal dialogue between students from different linguistic and cultural backgrounds.
LEGO Serious Play (LSP) is participative methodology which can challenge hierarchies in interaction and communication in the classroom, facilitating rich responses to deep question and as such can be very relevant to intercultural education. Although, initially developed as strategic process for business, more recently there has been greater interest in the use of LSP in educational contexts , particularly Higher Education (James,2014; McCusker, 2014; Nerantzi, Moravej & Johnson, 2015)
Whilst LSP has much in common with many visual methodologies, allowing participants to express ideas through artefacts, its theoretical underpinnings vary from those methodologies (Barton and James ,2015). Most significant of the theories embodied in LSP is Papert and Harel’s notion of Constructionism (1991), whereby people come to a better understanding of ideas by building tangible representations. This and the well-established role of metaphor in education (Lakoff and Johnson,1980) elaborated by Schön’s (1983) generative metaphor are central to the engagement with and discussion of ideas represented with LEGO bricks. LSP uses modelling and metaphor as a means of embodying abstract ideas and concretising formal relationships between them and claims to be a “unique process” which unleashes “insight, inspiration and imagination”(Rasmussen Consulting 2015)?
Early developments in the LSP protocol identified that LSP facilitated groups to better see the human systems of which they were a part The rationale for the method is that through articulation of our knowledge we can begin to explore what can be imagined and be able us work towards changing our worlds to become consistent with our values or visions.
LSP is based on the belief that “everyone has something unique and valuable to contribute”. It creates an environment which gives equal voice to all participants and breaks the routine of dominant voices within discussions. In this, it can be seen that many of the principles which underpin LSP echo the aspirations of interculturality for more participative and equal dialogue.
This paper reports on the use LEGO Serious Play as a means to address some of the challenges faced with regard to student engagement and participation in international and multilingual environments. It inspects the claims that play (and LEGO) offer a universal language that can create bridges between cultures (Gauntlet and Thomsen, 2013) and proceeds to examine the potential of LSP to encourage interaction and reflection, focusing in particular on the role of imagination, symbolic representation and metaphor It discusses the affordances of LSP as a pedagogical and conceptual tool for intercultural education and communication and its role in overcoming the hierarchical structures which can develop in group environments such as classrooms.
Data were gathered through 3 workshops, held at the previous CIES Conference (2016) and with students on an Intercultural education course at a University in England, in which participants were asked to consider their conceptions of international and intercultural education. All groups were multinational in composition, with participants from varied national backgrounds including Asia, Europe and the Americas.
The paper will make the case that LEGO Serious Play has a contribution to make as a facilitation tool in a context where more established data collection techniques would lead to little new knowledge. Findings in this paper show that LSP has revealed imaginative conceptualisations of the rationale, role and potential for international education. The LSP method allowed equal voice to all participants in the process, including those more traditionally reticent members of the workshop groups. High levels of engagement were achieved and a broad spectrum of ideas were presented and most importantly heard. Feedback on the process has been very positive and enthusiastic with many participants identifying ways in which they might use the method in their own professional practice.
This current research with LSP demonstrates that it holds great potential as pedagogical practice for understanding complex ideas and relationships surrounding interculturality and international education.

Barton, G and James, A (2015) “Threshold Concepts, LEGO Serious Play® and systems thinking: towards a combined methodology”. Practice and Evidence of Scholarship of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education (PESTLHE). (In Press)
Gauntlett, D., and B. S. Thomsen. 2013. “Cultures of Creativity.” Billund: LEGO Foundation.‐us/research‐and‐learning/foundationresearch/cultures‐of‐creativity/
Gorski, P. C. (2008). “Good intentions are not enough: A decolonizing intercultural education” Intercultural education, 19(6), 515-525.
James, Alison (2014) “Learning in three dimensions: using Lego Serious Play for creative and critical reflection across time and space”. In: Global Innovation of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education: Transgressing Boundaries. Professional Learning and Development in Schools and Higher Education, 11 . Springer. ISBN 9783319104812
Lakoff, G., & Johnson, M. (1980). “Metaphors we live by”. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Lego (no date.) “The Science of Lego Serious Play”. USA: Executive Discovery llc. [Online] Available at (Accessed: 20 September 2016).
McCusker, S. (2014). Lego® Serious PlayTM: Thinking about teaching and learning. International Journal of Knowledge, Innovation and Entrepreneurship, 2(1), 27-37.
Nerantzi, C., Moravej, H., & Johnson, F. (2015). “Play Brings Openness or Using a Creative Approach to Evaluate an Undergraduate Unit and Move Forward Together”. Journal of Perspectives in Applied Academic Practice,3(2).

2011 - American Psychology - Law Society / 4th International Congress of Psychology and Law Words: 97 words || 
2. Gray, Andrew., Mills, Jeremy. and Kroner, Daryl. "Prospective long-term (11-year) follow-up for violence of the HCR-20, VRAG, LSI-R, PCL-R, LCSF, and SIR" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychology - Law Society / 4th International Congress of Psychology and Law, Hyatt Regency Miami, Miami, FL, Mar 02, 2011 <Not Available>. 2019-11-19 <>
Publication Type: Poster
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This paper reports on the comparative predictive validity of risk assessment instruments over an 11-year period. The original data (Kroner & Mills, 2001; Mills & Kroner, 2006) was the first to compare the HCR-20, PCL-R, VRAG, LSI-R, SIR and LCSF using a prospective methodology. The baserate for violence was 44.8%. The results show that all of the instruments were significantly related to violence though in absolute terms the PCL-R was consistently lowest in terms of association ( r ) and accuracy (AUC). Post hoc analysis showed that the predictive variance in the PCL-R lies within Facet 4.

2010 - American Psychology - Law Society Words: 97 words || 
3. Murrie, Daniel., Boccaccini, Ph.D., Marcus., Rufino, Katrina. and Jackson, Rebecca. "Towards understanding poor PCL-R reliability “in the field”: Lessons from a disappointing PCL-R research training" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychology - Law Society, Westin Bayshore Hotel, Vancouver, BC, Canada, <Not Available>. 2019-11-19 <>
Publication Type: Symposium Paper
Abstract: Studies report excellent rater agreement when trained research assistants administer the PCL-R during formal research. But recent naturalistic studies suggest poorer agreement—and suggest evaluator characteristics may influence PCL-R scores—when clinicians administer the PCL-R in routine practice. To further explore evaluator differences, we conducted a formal PCL-R training with 25 participants, then examined their reliability in scoring two PCL-R interviews. Results revealed poorer reliability than expected (ICC A,1=.51 for PCL-R Total), and a meaningful proportion of variance in PCL-R scores attributable to raters. Rater differences played a greater role when scoring the interpersonal/emotional components of psychopathy.

2015 - RSA Annual Meeting Words: 127 words || 
4. Leroux, Virginie. "Révélations oniriques: Comment figurer les rêves ?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the RSA Annual Meeting, Humboldt University of Berlin, Berlin, Germany, <Not Available>. 2019-11-19 <>
Publication Type: Panel Paper
Abstract: Dans l’épopée antique, selon une topique fixée chez Homère, le songe prophétique se confond souvent avec la visite d’un personnage onirique, souvent une divinité ou un mort, qui vient apporter un message au dormeur. L’iconographie humaniste s’approprie cette topique de façons variées : le rêveur est souvent représenté éveillé en train de converser avec le porteur du message et seule la culture du spectateur lui permet d’identifier qu’il s’agit d’un rêve. Parfois, cependant, sont représentés simultanément le rêveur endormi et le contenu du rêve, par exemple lorsque Nicolὸ dell’Abate illustre l’apparition du dieu Tibérinus à Enée. A partir de songes prophétiques empruntés à la tradition épique – songe de Pâris, songe d’Hécube et songes d’Enée - il s’agira d’interroger la figuration littéraire et picturale de l’illusion onirique.

2015 - 4S Annual Meeting – Denver Words: 154 words || 
5. Huang, Hsini. and Jong, Simcha. "Public research, innovation and R&D performance; Science funding restrictions and corporate R&D in cell therapy" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 4S Annual Meeting – Denver, Sheraton Downtown, Denver, CO, Nov 11, 2015 <Not Available>. 2019-11-19 <>
Publication Type: Paper Abstract
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Firms in science-intensive industries are more likely to initiate novel R&D projects and projects that are initiated are less likely to fail when the funding outlook for public research is better. The context of our study is the R&D landscape in the global cell therapy industry across four periods that were distinctive in terms of the outlook for relevant public research. Analysing our dataset on 583 commercial product development projects in the cell therapy field from 1986 until 2011, we find lower R&D project initiation rates and higher failure rates for US firms in the aftermath of the announcement in 2001 of a federal funding moratorium on specific types human embryotic stem cell research. R&D failure rates of cell therapy projects initiated by US firms returned to levels similar to those of non-US firms as the US public funding outlook for stem cell research improved at both state- and federal- levels during subsequent periods.

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