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2006 - American Sociological Association Pages: 19 pages || Words: 6226 words || 
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1. Mueller, Jennifer. "Old-Fashioned Racism to "Racism Lite": The Changing Character of American Racism through the Lens of Riesman" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Montreal Convention Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, Aug 11, 2006 Online <PDF>. 2019-10-15 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p105073_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: As the most “popular” and widely-read sociological book ever, David Riesman’s The Lonely Crowd (1969) has in many respects stood the test of time. The original edition, published in 1950, reflected the theoretical interpretations of Riesman, in collaboration with both Nathan Glazer and Reuel Denney, regarding the changing American character type, and the impact of that type on different facets of society. Interestingly, while Riesman’s study of inner- and other-direction have been applied, by himself and his followers, toward many scholarly ends, no scholars to date have taken to applying his theoretical constructs toward an understanding of the changing “character” of American racism. The present work aims to take up just such an application of Riesman’s theory.

2006 - American Sociological Association Pages: 18 pages || Words: 4966 words || 
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2. Hatch, Laurie. and Ruiz, Carey. "What is Racism? A Project to Assess Undergraduate Sociology Students' Understandings of Racism" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Montreal Convention Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, Aug 10, 2006 Online <PDF>. 2019-10-15 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p105146_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Sydell and Nelson (2000) argue that by dissecting different perceptions of racism, researchers can better understand the complexities of racism in contemporary U.S. society. A parallel argument can be made for teaching and learning: By understanding perceptions of racism held by our students, we can generate more effective methods to teach about this important issue. The central aims of this project were 1) to assess how undergraduate students define racism, and 2) to explore how differing definitions of racism held by students may be linked with their understandings of discrimination in contemporary society. Results show that students’ proposed definitions of racism include not only commonly-accepted scholarly definitions, but also richer and more varied understandings of racism in contemporary society. In addition, students who embrace a broader range of possible definitions of racism also are more likely to express agreement that members of minority groups and women continue to face job discrimination in the U.S. The paper addresses implications of these results for teaching about racism and other controversial topics.

2003 - American Sociological Association Pages: 37 pages || Words: 10318 words || 
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3. Bonilla-Silva, Eduardo. and Baiocchi, Gianpaolo. "Anything but Racism: How Sociologists Minimize the Significance of Racism" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Atlanta Hilton Hotel, Atlanta, GA, Aug 16, 2003 Online <.PDF>. 2019-10-15 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p108127_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The academic declining significance of race did not begin with William Julius Wilson’s work in the late 1970s. In this paper we take a broad look at the methods mainstream sociologists have used to validate whites’ racial common sense about racial matters in the post-civil rights era. Our general goal is to succinctly examine the major tactics sociologists have used to minimize the significance of racism in explaining minorities’ plight. Specifically, we survey how: (1) sociologists’ weak racial theory leads to a weak interpretation of racial outcomes, (2) most work on racial attitudes creates a mythical view on whites' racial attitudes, (3) the various demographic indices used to asses post-civil rights' racial matters miss how race affects minorities today, (4) the ethnographic gaze looks at minorities much like anthropologists have looked at "natives," (5) new work on "social capital" tends to hide the centrality of racially-based networks, and (6) the way most sociologists report their results distorts the significance of racial stratification. We conclude by suggesting that work on racial matters will need to be revamped if it is going to have any practical use for those at the "bottom of the well."

2011 - American Sociological Association Annual Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: 7265 words || 
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4. Bonnet, Francois. "The Interactional Definition of Racism and Anti-Racism in Urban Spaces" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Caesar's Palace, Las Vegas, NV, Aug 20, 2011 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-10-15 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p505531_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Is racism central to understand social structure, or is it a failed sociological concept because of its normative connotations? Based on 90+ qualitative interviews with law enforcement personnel in shopping malls and railway stations in France and Italy, this article suggests that racism is best conceived as a label. French interviewees are extremely reluctant to explicitly speak race and resort to a number of interactional strategies to avoid an accusation of racism. The explicit and unabashed designation of immigrants in Italy highlights by contrast French colorblind speech norms. One could interpret French circumlocutions and awkwardness as covert racism, or methodological problems of social desirability bias. An examination of the French security policy shows that the security team has to speak colorblind, but to act race-conscious, in order to achieve the same desired goal: to avoid an accusation of racism. This calls for research that analyzes the condition under which actors have to actively avoid being labeled as racists.

2005 - The Law and Society Words: 211 words || 
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5. Frymer, Paul. "Racism Revised: From an Individual to a Political Understanding of Racism" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The Law and Society, J.W. Marriott Resort, Las Vegas, NV, <Not Available>. 2019-10-15 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p17323_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: How should we understand and explain individual acts of racism? Despite extensive debate about the broader place and importance of racism in America, there is surprisingly little theoretical or empirical analysis of what leads individuals to commit racist acts. In contrast to most political scientists who understand racism as an individual psychological attitude, an irrational prejudice, I argue that individual manifestations of racism are the result of a complex set of factors, and that latent psychology is less helpful to understanding them than are the maneuverings and behavior of strategic actors following rules and incentives provided by institutional organizations. We need to examine the ways in which institutions encourage racist acts by providing rules and procedures that motivate people to behave in a racist manner or behave in a manner that motivates others to do so. To further explore and compare political-institutional and individual-psychological approaches to understanding racism, I examine manifestations of racism in labor union elections. I analyze more than 150 cases in which the National Labor Relations Board and federal appellate courts formally responded to reported violations of racism in a union election. The principles of this approach can easily be applied to other contexts and suggests a new agenda for racism scholars.

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