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2006 - American Sociological Association Pages: 19 pages || Words: 6226 words || 
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1. Mueller, Jennifer. "Old-Fashioned Racism to "Racism Lite": The Changing Character of American Racism through the Lens of Riesman" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Montreal Convention Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, Aug 11, 2006 Online <PDF>. 2020-02-25 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p105073_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: As the most “popular” and widely-read sociological book ever, David Riesman’s The Lonely Crowd (1969) has in many respects stood the test of time. The original edition, published in 1950, reflected the theoretical interpretations of Riesman, in collaboration with both Nathan Glazer and Reuel Denney, regarding the changing American character type, and the impact of that type on different facets of society. Interestingly, while Riesman’s study of inner- and other-direction have been applied, by himself and his followers, toward many scholarly ends, no scholars to date have taken to applying his theoretical constructs toward an understanding of the changing “character” of American racism. The present work aims to take up just such an application of Riesman’s theory.

2019 - American Sociological Association Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
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2. Gallagher, Charles. "Institutional Racism Revisited: The Role of Institutions in Perpetuating Racism Through Colorblindness" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Hilton New York Midtown & Sheraton New York Times Square Hotel, New York City, Aug 09, 2019 Online <PDF>. 2020-02-25 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1512603_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Over the last decades colorblindness has gone from an ideal to a normative, formalized practice embedded in every major institution’s organizational structure. This ideological perspective shapes how institutions perceive, construct, articulate and disseminate the widely held belief that racial equality has been achieved in the United States. Institutional colorblindness is the guiding principle that structures the mission and culture of organizations and connects and ideologically embeds workers to the organizational goals of the institution where they work, are schooled, are entertained, worship or read or view current events. Each institution has its own internal logic and discursive practices that create, put in place, supports and justifies the belief that racist acts are aberrations or anomalies and that colorblindness is organizationally normative.
I argue that a primary reason whites now so readily embrace a colorblind narrative, as indicated in numerous surveys on racial attitudes and perceptions of mobility, is that our major institutions provide what is essentially variations on some theme of colorblindness; each institution has a different ideological message, mission statement, vocabulary and tropes that normalize how and why our nation has achieved has achieved colorblindness and the role that institution has in that narrative. Whites have been socialized into colorblindness through their connection to and involvement in the institutions they inhabit. Each institution has its own internal logic and discursive practice that creates, puts in place, support and justifies the idea that racist beliefs or acts are an anathema to that particular institution and that racist acts that might occur within that organization are aberrations or anomalies. While the institutional logics and story lines of colorblindness vary among and often within specific institutions (law, the courts, mass media, education, corporations…) the overarching narrative is that institutional racism no longer plays a role in shaping life chances, socio-economic mobility or in the discriminatory treatment of racial minorities.

2004 - American Sociological Association Pages: 30 pages || Words: 9577 words || 
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3. Chito Childs, Erica. "The Racial Politics of Interracial Couples: Sites of Racism and Anti-Racism" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Hilton San Francisco & Renaissance Parc 55 Hotel, San Francisco, CA,, Aug 14, 2004 Online <.PDF>. 2020-02-25 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p108368_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This paper seeks to explore the issue of black-white interracial couples and the ways that these couples’ experiences can be used to understand contemporary racist practices and attitudes as well antiracist activism. Yet within the social scientific research, interracial couples have often been viewed simply as a sign of assimilation and improving race relations. In particular the experiences of interracial couples were studied for their similarities and differences to same-race couples, arguing that increasing numbers of interracial couples signaled racial progress. For the most part, research on interracial couples has not explored the societal responses of groups and communities to these unions, and the lingering opposition that exists among various racial and ethnic communities. Therefore while the occurrence of couples coming together across racial lines is significant, it does not necessarily mean that the larger racial communities are integrating or that racism is diminishing. Also, interracial couples themselves are not necessarily examples of interracial harmony and antiracism, since some couples may have internalized racist attitudes and practices (i.e. the argument that some black men who only date white women have internalized the racialized standards of beauty which privilege a Eurocentric standard of beauty).

The complex ways that interracial couples, through their attitudes, practices and experiences, reveal both racism and antiracism will be explored, drawing from extensive qualitative and ethnographic research. Nine focus groups were conducted with white and black communities (at three different colleges and three different churches) about their attitudes and beliefs about interracial unions, and the implications it had on their community and race relations in general. Also I conducted fifteen in-depth interviews with black-white couples about their experiences within their families, and communities, as well as their own discourses on race. While some couples actively adopt an antiracist position and are committed to issues of racial equality, a number of the couples employ racialized discourses that cling to essentialist notions of race, racist beliefs about blacks, and a refusal to acknowledge the realities of race. Within the communities’ responses, overwhelmingly interracial relationships are opposed, especially for one’s own family and friends. Like contemporary racism this opposition is subtle yet there nonetheless. Bringing together, the attitudes and experiences of the couples with the expressed and implied opposition of the communities, the complexities of interracial relationships are clear. In sum, interracial couples can embody the best and worst of race relations; in some cases representing the ability to live and love across socially constructed racial lines, yet in other cases solidifying these racial boundaries through the opposition of white and black families and communities.

2006 - American Sociological Association Pages: 18 pages || Words: 4966 words || 
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4. Hatch, Laurie. and Ruiz, Carey. "What is Racism? A Project to Assess Undergraduate Sociology Students' Understandings of Racism" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Montreal Convention Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, Aug 10, 2006 Online <PDF>. 2020-02-25 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p105146_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Sydell and Nelson (2000) argue that by dissecting different perceptions of racism, researchers can better understand the complexities of racism in contemporary U.S. society. A parallel argument can be made for teaching and learning: By understanding perceptions of racism held by our students, we can generate more effective methods to teach about this important issue. The central aims of this project were 1) to assess how undergraduate students define racism, and 2) to explore how differing definitions of racism held by students may be linked with their understandings of discrimination in contemporary society. Results show that students’ proposed definitions of racism include not only commonly-accepted scholarly definitions, but also richer and more varied understandings of racism in contemporary society. In addition, students who embrace a broader range of possible definitions of racism also are more likely to express agreement that members of minority groups and women continue to face job discrimination in the U.S. The paper addresses implications of these results for teaching about racism and other controversial topics.

2005 - The Law and Society Words: 211 words || 
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5. Frymer, Paul. "Racism Revised: From an Individual to a Political Understanding of Racism" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The Law and Society, J.W. Marriott Resort, Las Vegas, NV, <Not Available>. 2020-02-25 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p17323_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: How should we understand and explain individual acts of racism? Despite extensive debate about the broader place and importance of racism in America, there is surprisingly little theoretical or empirical analysis of what leads individuals to commit racist acts. In contrast to most political scientists who understand racism as an individual psychological attitude, an irrational prejudice, I argue that individual manifestations of racism are the result of a complex set of factors, and that latent psychology is less helpful to understanding them than are the maneuverings and behavior of strategic actors following rules and incentives provided by institutional organizations. We need to examine the ways in which institutions encourage racist acts by providing rules and procedures that motivate people to behave in a racist manner or behave in a manner that motivates others to do so. To further explore and compare political-institutional and individual-psychological approaches to understanding racism, I examine manifestations of racism in labor union elections. I analyze more than 150 cases in which the National Labor Relations Board and federal appellate courts formally responded to reported violations of racism in a union election. The principles of this approach can easily be applied to other contexts and suggests a new agenda for racism scholars.

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