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2010 - Theory vs. Policy? Connecting Scholars and Practitioners Words: 37 words || 
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1. Kim, Moohong. "Cultural Dimension of Credit Rating: Emergence of Domestic Credit Rating Agencies and Regionalization of Credit Rating in Asia" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Theory vs. Policy? Connecting Scholars and Practitioners, New Orleans Hilton Riverside Hotel, The Loews New Orleans Hotel, New Orleans, LA, Feb 17, 2010 <Not Available>. 2020-01-27 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p415820_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: This paper explores the cultural dimension of credit rating with special reference to Domestic Credit Rating Agencies (DCRAs) which have been largely neglected in IPE studies despite their prominent emergence and increasing role in emerging markets since

2015 - SRCD Biennial Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
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2. Soliday Hong, Sandra., Burchinal, Margaret. and Sabol, Terri. "Do Quality Rating and Improvement System Ratings Work in Different Settings? Ratings, Quality, and Child Outcomes" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the SRCD Biennial Meeting, Pennsylvania Convention Center and the Philadelphia Marriott Downtown Hotel, Philadelphia, PA, Mar 19, 2015 <Not Available>. 2020-01-27 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p958932_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Poster
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Starting about 20 years ago, states created Quality Rating and Improvement Systems (QRIS) as market-based incentive systems in an effort to improve ECE quality and children’s school-readiness among other goals. “Validation” studies that examined the association between QRIS ratings and child outcomes have, to date, been limited to analyses of data from state pre-k programs (Hong et al., 2014; Sabol & Pianta, 2014; Sabol et al., 2013). These programs tend to have higher quality standards than the community-based programs that typically volunteer to participate in QRIS. Therefore, this study will examine the extent to which QRIS ratings of ECE programs with and without standards are associated with differences in ECE quality, and children’s school-readiness skills by comparing replicated analyses across studies of varied ECE program types.

QRIS ratings were simulated using secondary data from three large studies of child care quality. All studies collected data on quality indicators widely used in QRIS, and measured school-readiness (see Table 1). The sample included: two nationally representative studies of Head Start, the Head Start Family and Child Care Experiences Survey (FACES) 2006 (n = 127 programs and 2,710 children) and 2009 (n = 108 centers and 1,986 children). Federal Head Start guidelines set standards for programs, and a triennial onsite-review monitors them. The other study, Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B; n = 1,400 centers and 700 children) is a nationally representative cohort study, and included a sample of child care settings in which the children enrolled as 4-year-olds. We focused on center-care that represented 77% of the settings, of which 42% were community-based programs, 58% were Head Start. We conducted all analyses using multi-level models, accounting for nesting of children in programs and including the child’s fall score and child and family demographics as covariates. Grand-mean standardization (M=0, SD=1) of all variables means regression coefficients can be interpreted as effect sizes. Multiple imputation accounted for missing data. Parallel analyses were conducted using the data from each study, and coefficients were combined using meta-analytic techniques.

Results are shown in Table 2. Overall, we found very little evidence that the quality indicators or the simulated QRIS scores related to observed quality or child outcomes differently in studies of Head Start only (FACES) and in the study of programs from multiple-auspices (ECLS-B). Only two indicators showed different patterns of association in the 31 comparisons that were conducted. Teacher education was a stronger predictor of ECERS scores and group size of social skills in ECLS-B than in FACES. The general lack of differences in associations across the two sets of studies occurred despite less variability in director education, group size, and ECERS scores in FACES than in ECLS-B, probably due to higher program standards in Head Start than for community child care. Across the two studies, findings suggested that ECERS scores were related as expected to the simulated QRIS scores and to specific quality indicators. Residualized gains in child outcomes were related to some quality indicators – teacher education, director education, and group size.

2008 - NCA 94th Annual Convention Pages: 28 pages || Words: 6429 words || 
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3. Levine, Kenneth. and Violanti, Michelle. "Rating My Group Members and their Rating of Me: Is there a Relationship Between Ratings, Social Loafing and Group Cohesion?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the NCA 94th Annual Convention, TBA, San Diego, CA, Nov 20, 2008 Online <PDF>. 2020-01-27 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p259748_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Previous research on group cohesion has treated it as an independent variable. This study set out to determine whether group cohesion could be predicted as the dependent variable. A total of 43 groups (474 undergraduate students) enrolled in an introduction to communication studies course completed a group project that accounted for more than 20 percent of their grade. After completing the group project, they filled out ratings of themselves and the other group members as well as 23 items on group functioning. Exploratory factor, confirmatory factor, and path analyses created a path model showing the relationships among how group members rated each other, were rated by other group members, individual-level input satisfaction, group-level input satisfaction, and cohesion. Conclusions from this research were that cohesion can be predicted as the dependent variable, and students who work and those who social loaf or freeload know who they are and include that in their ratings.

2015 - SRCD Biennial Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
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4. Hawkinson, Laura., Manship, Karen., Zucker, Eleanor. and Chavez, Helen. "Sensitivity of LA Step QRIS Ratings to Alternative Rating Calculation Approaches" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the SRCD Biennial Meeting, Pennsylvania Convention Center and the Philadelphia Marriott Downtown Hotel, Philadelphia, PA, Mar 19, 2015 <Not Available>. 2020-01-27 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p962189_index.html>
Publication Type: Individual Poster
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Research shows that children who attended high quality early childhood education (ECE) programs have cognitive and behavioral advantages at school entry and beyond. In response to this evidence, states and counties have implemented Quality Rating and Improvement Systems (QRIS) to rate the quality of ECE programs. This study tests how QRIS ratings vary according to the rating approach used.

QRISs use one of three different approaches to calculate ratings: a points-based approach that determines ratings from points earned on quality indicators across domains; a building blocks approach that requires programs to meet all rating level criteria on quality indicators in each domain; and a hybrid approach that combines elements of points-based and building block approaches. As states make decisions about QRIS design, they need information about how the rating approach used may affect the rating distribution of ratings. A recent study using public pre-kindergarten data found that ECE programs receive different QRIS ratings under different rating calculation approaches (Sabol et al., 2013). However, these results may not generalize to child care programs that participate in QRIS. Additional research is needed to determine how rating approaches affect ratings in the types of early childhood programs that participate in QRIS. This study uses STEP rating data collected by the Los Angeles County Steps to Excellence Program (STEP) to test how sensitive QRIS ratings are to alternative rating calculation approaches.

STEP is a voluntary, county-based QRIS that rates a range of ECE provider types, including licensed centers, Head Start, public pre-kindergarten, and licensed family child care. STEP uses a hybrid QRIS rating calculation approach with five rating levels, with slightly different rating criteria for family child care and center-based programs. Drawing on STEP data collected on 210 programs (145 centers and 65 family child care programs) from 2007-2011, we simulated QRIS ratings under a points-based rating approach, a building block approach with five domains, and a building block approach with two classroom interaction domains only. Using the STEP ratings and the three simulated ratings, we compare how QRIS ratings vary for the same set of programs using these four rating approaches. We compare the frequencies of program ratings in each calculation approach, and present the reclassification rates and cross-tabulations for each pair of approaches to demonstrate how sensitive the ratings are to alternative rating approaches. Results are presented for all program types, and separately for centers and family child care.

Study results indicate that the distribution of QRIS ratings differs considerably under each of the four rating approaches. For all programs (Figure 1), the distribution of ratings tends toward higher ratings in the points-based approach (73.8% rated 4/5) and the CI block approach (53.3% rated 4/5); tends toward moderate ratings in the STEP hybrid rating approach (53.8% rated 3); and tends toward lower ratings in the 5D block approach (79.0% rated 1/2). These patterns differ somewhat when examined by program type. Reclassification rates ranged from 46-98% (Table 1), indicating that ratings are highly sensitive to the calculation approach. Policy implications are discussed.

2015 - International Communication Association 65th Annual Conference Pages: unavailable || Words: 7786 words || 
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5. Dheer, Evelien., Godin, Fréderic., Evens, Tom., De Neve, Wesley., Verdegem, Pieter. and Van de Walle, Rik. "How Can Twitter Data and Viewing Rates Enrich One Another? A Conceptual and Empirical Comparison Between Television Viewing Rates and Twitter Data for TV Audience Research" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association 65th Annual Conference, Caribe Hilton, San Juan, Puerto Rico, May 21, 2015 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2020-01-27 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p979659_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Social media platforms, such as Twitter, are changing the way people consume broadcast television media. For producers, social media metrics provide new insights and challenge incumbent measuring instruments, such as viewing rates. Within academia, Twitter’s relevance for audience research has developed only recently, whereby both opportunities and pitfalls are defined. In this paper, we depart from the idea that viewing rates and Twitter data enrich one another. We provide a conceptual and empirical comparison between both measures. Twitter data deepens our understanding of the viewing audience and viewing rates concurrently allow us to account for the relative importance of the tweeting audience. The data shows interesting inverse relations between ratings and Twitter traction for particular television programs, revealing low ratings in conjunction with high traction on Twitter and vice versa. Future endeavors for audience research and the role of social media data in social sciences are discussed.

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