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2008 - American Psychology - Law Society Words: 103 words || 
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1. Smith, Brooke. and Hosch, Harmon. "Beyond a Reasonable Doubt: The Effect of Language of Testimony on the Reasonable Doubt Standard" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychology - Law Society, Hyatt Regency Jacksonville Riverfront, Jacksonville, FL, Mar 05, 2008 <Not Available>. 2019-06-15 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p229387_index.html>
Publication Type: Poster
Abstract: A quantifiable measure of reasonable doubt was used to investigate the leniency effect for Spanish speaking defendants (Hosch, Tubb, and Shaw, 2004). Participants watched a trial stimulus containing a defendant testifying in English, Spanish with English translation, or not testifying, and supplied before and after ratings of reasonable doubt. Results showed that, again, mock jurors were less likely to convict the Spanish-speaking defendant. No support was demonstrated for a change in reasonable doubt for Spanish-speaking defendants. An interaction was detected between participant speaking language and defendant language, demonstrating that Spanish-speaking participants were more likely to convict an English-speaking defendant.

2012 - International Communication Association Pages: unavailable || Words: 4234 words || 
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2. Boster, Franklin., Shaw, Allison. and Lindsey, Lisa. "A Simulation of a Dynamic Nonrecursive Theory of Reasoned Action With Implications for the Fit of the Cross-Sectional Theory of Reasoned Action" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, Sheraton Phoenix Downtown, Phoenix, AZ, May 24, 2012 Online <PDF>. 2019-06-15 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p550025_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Boster, Carpenter, Shaw, and DeAndrea (2010) and Boster, Shaw, and Liang (2011) developed and tested a family of dynamic models of the Theory of Reasoned Action (DTRA); however, both models do not elucidate action that includes both voluntary and involuntary elements. One possibility is that a non-recursive version of the TRA could be transformed into a Dynamic Non-Recursive Theory of Reasoned Action (DNTRA). Therefore, this paper will propose, develop, and test a model in which the causality of the TRA variables is a non-recursive form of the TRA. A causal model was constructed and a formal theory that reproduces this structure was developed in order to examine the strength of the autoregression parameters when varied, with attention to the impact on model equilibrium, the fit of the cross-sectional model, and the change in the distributional properties of the endogenous TRA variables. Theoretical and statistical implications of these results are discussed.

2013 - 4S Annual Meeting Words: 242 words || 
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3. Reinecke, David. "Model Trains, Moral Prices: On Reason, Reasonability, and Railroad Rates" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 4S Annual Meeting, Town and Country Resort and Convention Center, San Diego, California, <Not Available>. 2019-06-15 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p665472_index.html>
Publication Type: Paper Abstract
Abstract: Acting in the “public interest,” U.S. regulatory commissions have convened to rule on the “reasonability” of railroad rates since the late 19th century. Comparing railroad rates cases at the federal level before and after deregulation, the moral meaning of “reasonability” shifted in response to changes in the underlying economic and technical reasoning used to assess the “reasonability” of railroad rates. Under rate regulation (1898-1980), rate cases compared actual rates versus the averaged historical costs incurred by a railroad to service a particular disputed line. After deregulation and inspired by new economic thinking on cross-subsidies and contestable markets, rate cases assessed reasonability by comparing actual rates with those implied by an optimally efficient, hypothetical “stand alone railroad” designed by economic consultants. In the deregulatory period, rate cases were reserved only for “captive shippers,” usually coal or chemical producers, who relied entirely on a single railroad with no intramodal alternatives (trucking or canals). In lieu of actual price contestability by outside entrants through mandating access to the captive line (a strategy taken in other industries), the economic methodology “imagined” competition in its stead. Thus the question of rail rates moved from valuation and cost accounting to competition, albeit simulated. In sum, what counts as “reasonable” in a given period depends heavily on what constitutes not only economic “reason” and the procedures for “reasoning” through economic problems, but reasoning as well about the underlying technical systems at hand, in particular the networked infrastructures of railroads.

2008 - International Communication Association Pages: 27 pages || Words: 6368 words || 
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4. Lemal, Marijke. and Van den Bulck, Jan. "Television and Children's Moral Reasoning: Development of a Standardized Measure of Moral Reasoning on Interpersonal Violence" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, TBA, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, May 21, 2008 Online <PDF>. 2019-06-15 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p233419_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to construct a Standardized Measure of Moral Reasoning on Interpersonal Violence (SMRIV) and to explore the relationship between television exposure and children’s use of moral reasoning strategies. 377 elementary school children from fourth to sixth grade completed questionnaires containing measures on moral reasoning and violent and non-violent television viewing. Results suggested that the SMRIV was a reliable and valid scale of moral development. Regression analyses indicated that exposure to violent television content was positively related to a preference for authority based reasoning about interpersonal violence. Violent television exposure was also a significant predictor of preference for approval oriented reasoning about prosocial dilemmas. Further, non-violent television viewing was positively associated with a preference for perspective based moral reasoning. These findings provide support for a mental model approach.

2009 - ISPP 32nd Annual Scientific Meeting Pages: 49 pages || Words: 14717 words || 
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5. Woodson, Ben. "Anxiety and Motivated Reasoning - A Threat Based Cognitive Motivational Model of Motivated Reasoning" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ISPP 32nd Annual Scientific Meeting, Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland, Jul 14, 2009 Online <PDF>. 2019-06-15 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p370415_index.html>
Publication Type: Paper (prepared oral presentation)
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: The main hypothesis of this paper is that an increase in state and trait anxiety will cause an increase in motivated reasoning. A situation that increases state anxiety will increase motivated reasoning, and those people who are high on trait anxiety will have higher motivated reasoning at all times. The experiment to test this hypothesis will also test the effects of anger and positive affect on motivated reasoning, but the expected results and theory involving these two emotions has not been developed yet.

The cognitive-motivational model of anxiety and motivated reasoning is based on threat. The two basic forms of motivated reasoning tested in this paper – disconfirmation bias and confirmation bias – can be thought of as the avoidance of threat. The disconfirmation bias is when someone counter-argues against an attitude-incongruent argument or avoids the threat of that argument by diminishing its threatening nature. The confirmation bias is the tendency of people to read attitude-congruent arguments rather than attitude-incongruent argument. This is the avoidance of threat because the attitude-incongruent arguments are identified as a threat and then avoided by reading the attitude-congruent information. Anxiety will lead to an increase in both of these because an increase in anxiety increases the likelihood someone will identify a stimulus as a threat. When a stimulus is identified as a threat, the person then engages in motivated reasoning to “flee” the threat. The experiment that will be discussed in the paper will be conducted in March or April.

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