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2012 - International Communication Association Pages: unavailable || Words: 7466 words || 
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1. Phua, Joe. "The Reference Group Perspective for Smoking Cessation: An Examination of the Influence of Social Norms and Social Identification with Reference Groups on Smoking Cessation Self-Efficacy" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, Sheraton Phoenix Downtown, Phoenix, AZ, May 24, 2012 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-09-16 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p550088_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This study proposed the Reference Group Perspective for smoking cessation, examining smokers’ identification with three reference groups: best friends, colleagues, and family members, and hypothesizing that identification with each group would moderate the relationship between injunctive and descriptive norms of the group and smoking cessation self-efficacy. Results of an online questionnaire (N=208) indicated that injunctive and descriptive norms of all three reference groups significantly affected smoking cessation self-efficacy, and this relationship was moderated by identification. Injunctive norms were stronger in predicting smoking cessation self-efficacy than descriptive norms, with injunctive norms of family members and descriptive norms of best friends having the most significant effect. Positive attitude towards smoking was also significantly associated with smoking cessation self-efficacy.

2007 - The Law and Society Association Words: 260 words || 
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2. Dammann, Klaus. "Legal Risks as Transitory Risks: Cognitive Expectations Referring and Not Referring to the Legal System's Environment" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The Law and Society Association, TBA, Berlin, Germany, Jul 25, 2007 <Not Available>. 2019-09-16 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p185722_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: The discussion about a methodology of legal decision making is mostly one about how to construct and justify normative expectations. These normative expectations are,with the exception of procedural law, focused on the environment of the legal system, e.g. on the family in family law, on the economy in commercial law.

This paper tries to analyze the second aspect of second order observation within the legal system, that is the construction of and argument about cognitive expectations in the form of legal risks ( including chance ).These legal risks are. unlike e.g. political and economic risks , transitory risks. The risk assessment ( e.g. by law firms or lower courts ) is done both inside the functional system (assessing what the product of a legal decision making process look like ? ) and outside it (assessing what will be the, inter alia , political or economic outcomes , i.e.how resources will be changed by the product of the legal process? ) ‘Legal products’, with minor exceptions , do not affect any legal resources but constitute transitory risks to be judged after the event from politics , the economy and in other environments of the legal system.

The THEORETICAL question will be: How can the analysis of legal risks be integrated into a Luhmann-like theory that, unlike a Bourdieu-like one , does not focus on resources ( What is at stake? Bourdieu: forms of capital ?) when constructing functional spheres of the social .

The EMPIRICAL questions will result in one hypothesis and a multi case-study to test it.

2008 - NCA 94th Annual Convention Words: 353 words || 
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3. Wade, Walter. "Rhetorical Reference? The Reflections on the Power of Poetic Reference in the Work of Paul Ricoeur" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the NCA 94th Annual Convention, TBA, San Diego, CA, <Not Available>. 2019-09-16 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p258545_index.html>
Publication Type: Invited Paper
Abstract: Paul Ricoeur’s philosophy of language organizes symbolic action along the poles of rhetoric, poetics, and hermeneutics. Symbolic action, for Ricoeur, has a referential force beyond that of literal denotation. In The Rule of Metaphor, he articulates a “metaphorical reference” that arises from the ashes of an impossible literal reference. In Time and Narrative he expands his notion of metaphorical reference, identifying the “interweaving reference” of narrative that makes temporality comprehensible in language. These two poetic references are the work of the productive imagination and are recognized through the hermeneutic reconstruction of the semantics of the sentence and the discourse of the text. Poetics and hermeneutics are the source of creative innovation in language through metaphorical and interweaving reference.
The rhetorical dimension, however, never receives rigorous treatment by Ricoeur: it is either the “reduced” rhetoric of tropology or the Aristotelian combination of doxa, enthymeme, and persuasion. The only “rhetorical reference” we might find is the doxastic stock of pre-existing opinion. Utopia, “living” metaphor, and emplotment are fundamentally poetic forces, while rhetoric is saddled with ideology, the “dead” metaphors of doxa, and logical arrangement.
This paper attempts to expand Ricoeur’s conception of the productive imagination such that it can be seen as operative in rhetorical action. Doxa is not a static construct, but rather an imaginative re-construction by the speaker (or other agent of symbolic action, including the rhetorical critic). Rhetoric operates by means of a dialectic of doxa and innovation, wherein the interpretation of doxa by the rhetorical agent is itself an act of the productive imagination. This interpretive act transforms the symbolism of action in what Ricoeur calls the practical field. The result is a kind of “rhetorical reference” that is parallel to Ricoeur’s notions of “metaphorical reference” and the “interweaving reference.” Rhetorical reference can help critics think about the materiality and specificity of rhetoric, especially insofar as it constantly re-works the collective meaning through its capacity to literally re-create doxa. This reference will help us understand the ways in which common sense is constituted and contested as rhetorical discourse.

2007 - AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CRIMINOLOGY Words: 194 words || 
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4. Chen, Pan., Vazsonyi, Alexander. and Scarpate, J.. "Childhood Aggression Over Time in American Indian, Caucasian, and Hispanic Children: Referred Versus Non-Referred Youth" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CRIMINOLOGY, Atlanta Marriott Marquis, Atlanta, Georgia, Nov 13, 2007 <Not Available>. 2019-09-16 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p201750_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: The empirical evidence has consistently shown that childhood aggression is a precursor of later delinquency (e.g., Brook et al., 1995; Harachi et al., 2006). However, few studies have examined whether ethnic/racial group membership moderates this association. The current investigation examined teacher reported child aggression (K-5th grade) on later referrals to the juvenile justice system by ethnic/racial group (American Indian, Caucasian, and Hispanic). Mean levels of children’s aggression were compared by official juvenile court status across groups. Furthermore, changes in mean levels of aggression were examined over time by racial/ethnic group in both the non-referred and referred groups. The sample included N = 4,622 ethnically diverse children (males and females) part of a large-scale violence prevention effort (Embry et al., 1996). Preliminary findings based on mean level comparisons over time by referral status provided evidence that levels of aggression remained largely stable over time across all three groups. Findings also indicated that for Caucasian and Hispanic children, mean levels of aggression were significantly different by referral status. However, this was not found for American Indian children. Additional analyses will focus on person-centered growth trajectories in aggression over time by referral status and across racial/ethnic groups.

2017 - American Sociological Association Annual Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: unavailable || 
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5. Zhang, Jie. "Reference and Perception: Towards a Reference Theory Perspective" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Palais des Congrès de Montréal, Montreal, Canada, Aug 12, 2017 Online <PDF>. 2019-09-16 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1237879_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Social Reference Theory postulates that 1) each perception is based on a reference, 2) no reference, no perception, 3) altering the reference can change a person’s perception of the same thing, and 4) people disagree on something because they refer to different reference on the same thing. Specifically, no specific perception (knowledge, evaluation, etc.) could be realized without a reference; various perceptions of the same object may be obtained with different references. This theoretical conceptualization is initially based on some key notions in philosophy, psychology, and economics, and sociology, etc. The concept also has roots in certain aspects of Chinese culture and thoughts. When viewed in terms of social theories, this perspective differs from other major ones in the Western sociology for both theoretical framing and methodologies, and has many practical implications in the social world. In this paper, I first discuss the principles of the concept and the previous notions that have led to the conceptualization. After an elaboration of the structure of the perspective, I provide some preliminary empirical evidence to support the theory. Finally, I illustrate and discuss selected macro and micro-level social psychology, criminology, and economics theories in comparison with Social Reference Theory as a sociological perspective. With further development and refinement along with empirical studies, this theory may hopefully become an additional theoretical perspective and methodology parallel to other major sociological theorems.

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