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2009 - Midwest Political Science Association 67th Annual National Conference Words: 180 words || 
1. Lau, Richard. and Kleinberg, Mona. "How is Political Knowledge Relevant to Correct Voting? _x000d_Stored Knowledge Versus the Skill to Access Relevant Information Online" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association 67th Annual National Conference, The Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, IL, <Not Available>. 2019-08-19 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: One of the most commonly accepted findings in American politics suggests that many citizens lack basic political knowledge. Despite these limitations, Lau, Anderson, and Redlawsk (2008) have found that the great bulk of voters in recent U.S. presidential elections (72%, on average) somehow managed to choose the “correct” candidate (defined as the candidate they would have supported had they possessed complete information about the candidates running in an election). _x000d_Lau et al. have consistently found that political knowledge is one of the most important predictors for correct voting. This paper questions whether political knowledge – commonly understood to be information stored in long-memory – plays the same role for younger generations accustomed to retrieving information from the Internet. This paper suggests that while younger generations may not be able to access as much political information “offline” by relying on their memory, they do not need to because political information is so easily accessible online. We hypothesize that the skill to find political information online substitutes for objective political knowledge in younger voters and becomes a pertinent predictor for correct decision-making.

2011 - 55th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society Words: 130 words || 
2. Oketch, Moses. "Relevant or not relevant? What role for human capital interpretation of educational development and economic development of Africa in the 21st century" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the 55th Annual Conference of the Comparative and International Education Society, Fairmont Le Reine Elizabeth, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, <Not Available>. 2019-08-19 <>
Publication Type: Panel Paper
Abstract: It is claimed that the 21st Century could be the century for the continent of Africa and that education will play a major role in Africa’s reclaiming the century. Similar assertions were made in the 1960s with a resounding acceptance of the human capital interpretation of education in national economic development. The enthusiasm with which African nations have implemented programs for universalisation of access to basic education in the last decade and, the growing demand for higher education has rekindled the debate on human capital interpretation of education in Africa with many nations setting up their visions for development in much the same fashion of the 1960s and 1970s. This session will open a discussion on lessons of nearly 60 years of human capital approach to educational development in Africa.

2011 - International Communication Association Pages: unavailable || Words: 4230 words || 
3. Warren, Jami. "Reflecting Students’ True Perceptions of Content Relevance: A Revised Content Relevance Scale" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, TBA, Boston, MA, May 25, 2011 Online <PDF>. 2019-08-19 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This study reviewed research on content relevance as well as problems with how it has been measured. Existing measures of content relevance tap into students’ perceptions of whether the teacher makes the course content relevant and not whether students truly think the content is relevant to them. In addition, this study addressed problems with the ways cognitive learning has been operationalized by instructional communication researchers. As a result, this study proposed and tested a new measure of content relevance that reflects students’ perceptions of course content relevance as opposed to their perceptions of whether the teacher makes the content relevant. Furthermore, this study examined the relationship between students’ perceptions of content relevance and students’ cognitive learning. Participants in this study included 267 undergraduates enrolled in public speaking courses at a large public southern university. Support was found for a new measure of content relevance. However, content relevance was only slightly correlated with cognitive learning. Limitations and directions for future research are also discussed.

2009 - International Marine Conservation Congress Words: 246 words || 
4. Olivier, MUSARD. "Mapping issues in the High Seas: a relevant process for relevant decision making – the main results of the European workshop “2012 Marine Targets”" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Marine Conservation Congress, George Madison University, Fairfax, Virginia, May 20, 2009 <Not Available>. 2019-08-19 <>
Publication Type: Speed Presentation
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: In the framework of the French Presidency of the European Union, the Ministry of Ecology and the Marine Protected Areas Agency have organized a technical seminar entitled “2012 marine targets : the European Marine Strategy and Issues in High Seas”, to be held in France in December 2008.

The aim of this international workshop, dedicated to the issues found in Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction, is to develop a comprehensive mapping programme encountered on both global and regional scales. This takes place after a year of many successful events, some of which were focused on international legacy aspects.

This seminar gives the opportunity to discuss on the best way to collect, share and use data, its value, its representativeness, its scale. This process can enhance the scientific and general knowledge on what is at stake in the High Seas. Currently, the issues in High Seas are so important that establishing a new governance for biodiversity is a major challenge.

The debate is of course on a legal ground but requires an integrated and scientific approach using mapping tools through three key themes: i) ecosystems, ii) habitats and species of special interest, iii) natural resources and human activities. This is part of the Ecosystem-Based Management approach.

Moreover, the outcomes of this event can help to identify an ecologically coherent network of high seas MPAs and subsequent adapted management measures as well as offer a set of concise and validated background documents for use as a pertinent European action plan tool.

2017 - Bergamo Conference on Curriculum Theory and Classroom Practice Words: 491 words || 
5. Williams Jr., Willie. "The Need for Culturally Relevant Curriculum and Instruction in Culturally Relevant Schools" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Bergamo Conference on Curriculum Theory and Classroom Practice, Bergamo Conference Center, Dayton, OH, Oct 12, 2017 <Not Available>. 2019-08-19 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Schools across the United States are seeking to understand the balance between students of color and teaching efforts. Culturally relevant teaching describes “a pedagogy that empowers students intellectually, socially, emotionally, and politically by using cultural referents to impart knowledge, skills, and attitudes. We teach 5th graders nationally that “government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.” (Lincoln, 1863) Is this also true when we examine education? There is a huge void in classrooms of color when teachers do not have a readily accessible curriculum that is designed with the student’s cultures in mind. According to Gay & Howard (p. 14, 2003), “[a]s educators address the demographic divide, teachers must face the reality that they will continue to come into contact with students whose cultural, ethnic, linguistic, racial, and social class backgrounds differ from their own” (p. 197). Do we teach students the founding concepts of education that they learn? Are we teaching students of color that the history of their people did not start with slavery? Are we teaching students various languages across all school networks, or just the schools that can afford it? These are critical questions that the education community has a responsibility to answer. “The cultural knowledge, prior experiences, frames of reference, and performance styles of ethnically diverse students...make learning more relevant to and effective… It teaches to and through strengths of these students. It is culturally validating and affirming” (p. 29).

“The problem embracing the American educational system is how to ensure that all students, especially racial/ethnic minority students, achieve. However, how the problem dictates the actions taken to address the issues.” A possible solution to this would to be first to establish a need for curriculum that truly teaches “by the people, for the people”. The next step would be to sit down with parents, teachers, students, researchers, policy makers, and other stakeholders to effectively discuss what should be placed in the learning targets. These separate, but equal entities should discuss and understand completely what the students are learning. They are often not apart of the educational crafting of learning and often only see the results of the teaching and not the creation and implementation of teaching itself. The final step would be design, use, & study this curriculum in the settings where it is needed most, in schools of color.

Ladson-Billings, G. (1994).  The Dreamkeepers: Successful teaching for African-American students. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, pp. 17–18.
Brown-Jeffy, S., & Cooper, J. (n.d.). Toward a Conceptual Framework of Culturally Relevant Pedagogy: An Overview of the Conceptual and Theoretical Literature. Retrieved July 31, 2017, from
Gay, G. (2000). Culturally responsive teaching. New York: Teachers College Press. Quotation from p. 29.
Howard, T. (2003). “Culturally relevant pedagogy: ingredients for critical teacher reflection.”  Theory into practice 42:3, pp.195-202. Quotations from p. 195.
Lincoln, Abraham. "The Gettysburg Address." 19 Nov. 1863. The Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln. Ed. Roy P. Basler. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers UP, 1955.

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