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2007 - American Political Science Association Pages: 20 pages || Words: 8398 words || 
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1. Fox, Jonathan. "Constitutional Religion Clauses and State Religion Policy: Are the Two Correlated?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association, Hyatt Regency Chicago and the Sheraton Chicago Hotel and Towers, Chicago, IL, Aug 30, 2007 <Not Available>. 2018-04-25 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p210527_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: This study examines whether states follow the constitution clauses on their religion in 149 states. Specifically it measures the presence of (1) separation of religion and state clauses (2) clauses banning religious discrimination or protecting religious freedom and (3) clauses banning discrimination on the basis of religion or protecting equality regardless of religion. The presence of these clauses is tested against the extent to which states engage in religious discrimination and religious legislation based on variables from the Religion and State (RAS) dataset. The results show a limited impact of constitutional clauses on government behavior. Religious freedom clauses are associated with lower levels of religious discrimination in the bivariate analysis but this result does not hold up in the multi-variate analysis and most states with such clauses engage in at least some religious discrimination. States with constitutional separation of religion and state clauses engage in less religious legislation but the vast majority of them engage in at least some religious legislation. This result is consistent in both the bivariate and multi-variate analyses. Clauses banning discrimination on the basis of religion or protecting equality regardless of religion have no impact on religious discrimination.

2009 - Midwest Political Science Association 67th Annual National Conference Pages: 38 pages || Words: 10561 words || 
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2. Smith, Lauren. "Religion, Voter Turnout and Issue Mobilization: Religion or Issues as a Mobilizing Factor in National Elections" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association 67th Annual National Conference, The Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, IL, Apr 02, 2009 Online <PDF>. 2018-04-25 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p364565_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This paper looks at the effect of religion on voter turnout in the 2004 presidential election using the National Annenberg Election Survey. It utilizes a more nuanced religious classification scheme developed in 2000 by Steensland et al. to look at the effect of differing religions on voter turnout. It also examines whether same-sex marriage ballot initiatives in 2004 were a mobilizing factor for the religious groups in the election. Overall it finds that both church attendance and issues mobilized evangelicals to vote in the election. As well, it produced the unique finding that while there is a mobilizing difference between evangelical and mainline Protestants, this difference disappears when looking at evangelical and mainline African Americans, pointing to the significance of the black church as an entity in mobilizing its members to vote.

2009 - American Sociological Association Annual Meeting Pages: 17 pages || Words: 4049 words || 
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3. Jones, Alison. "The Uses of Religion: A Framework for Analyzing Religion as a Category “in Practice”" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Hilton San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, Aug 08, 2009 Online <PDF>. 2018-04-25 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p309707_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: What is religion? Recent sociological work on religion has again raised the problem of defining religion appropriately for different cultural contexts. This paper argues that a switch from studying religion as an analytical category to studying it as a category “in practice” is one way to deal with these definitional problems. In addition, this lens gives us valuable insight into important dynamics of religions’ place in individual lives and societies. By category “in practice,” I mean recognizing that religion is a socially constructed category that varies meaningfully across contexts, and is contested and strategically employed by social actors. The paper develops a framework that employs this lens and then applies it to the empirical case of Chinese urban Buddhists. In conclusion, the paper expands the insights gained from this analysis to highlight the broader value of this lens for the social scientific study of religion.
Supporting Publications:
Supporting Document

2004 - American Sociological Association Pages: 19 pages || Words: 7585 words || 
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4. Kojima, Aiko. "Religion or Civil Religion as the Basis of Nationalism? : State Shinto Plan and National Moral in Meiji Japan" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Hilton San Francisco & Renaissance Parc 55 Hotel, San Francisco, CA,, Aug 14, 2004 Online <.PDF>. 2018-04-25 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p110728_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This paper attempts to show the logic and mechanism in which extreme nationalism become possible. Through the analysis of the difference between the state religion policy and the national moral (kokumin dotoku) policy in Meiji Japan, I find why the first plan failed while the second functioned as the basis of national ideology such “effectively”. In short, the government’s shift of policy in modern Japan can be described as shift from religion to “civil religion” in Rousseau’s term as a basis of national ideology. Though there are many similarities between religion and morality, morality is specifically a matter of practice and secularity. And that specific character was the very advantage that the national moral had for the basis of national ideology. This case analysis provides one historical evidence to show that no matter how eccentric it appears, nationalism cannot be explained as fanatic cult. Rather, national ideology requires a logic and a mechanism to be diffused and reproduced between people.

2007 - International Studies Association 48th Annual Convention Pages: 18 pages || Words: 10443 words || 
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5. Féron, Elise. "Religions and Conflicts. Religions as Root Causes or as Triggering Factors?" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association 48th Annual Convention, Hilton Chicago, CHICAGO, IL, USA, Feb 28, 2007 <Not Available>. 2018-04-25 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p178805_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: According to some authors, religiously divided societies are more prone to intense conflicts than countries where people have conflicting claims to resources based on interest groups or language divisions, and it is in societies where one big religious cleavage transcends all the others that conflict is considered to be the most likely. However, contemporary cases of conflict show that no straightforward conclusion should be taken concerning the real impact of religious differences, without a closer look at the real influence of clergy and faith in the conflict, and at the extent to which actors in conflict frame it in religious terms. In the Sand?ak region of ex-Yugoslavia for instance, it is in fact the pre-existing conflict between ethnic groups that has increased the religious consciousness of the population. This growing faith has in turn generated its own dynamic of estrangement and dissociation from other groups. Even in cases where the conflict is framed, both by internal and external actors, in religious terms, religion is not necessarily the main issue or cause of the conflict. In the Northern Irish case for example, the salience of religion is not a function of the ritual and doctrinal content of the religions themselves, but of the cultural significance of religion as a marker of identity. A similar discrepancy can be found in the Cyprus case, where religious differences, which seem quite obvious, do not play a major role in the current opposition between the populations living North and South of the border.

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