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2003 - American Association for Public Opinion Research Words: 282 words || 
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1. Wolter-Warmerdam, Kristine., Gardinali, Paolo. and Wong, Raymond. "Exploring Online Survey Methodologies:Who are the Respondents and How to Get Them to Respond" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Association for Public Opinion Research, Sheraton Music City, Nashville, TN, Aug 16, 2003 <Not Available>. 2019-12-09 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p116165_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Although the collection of survey data using the internet has become increasingly popular, the concern whether the responses are representative of the larger population has presented a major challenge to survey researchers. Using data collected from the Student Experience in the Research University in the Twenty-First Century (SERU21) study, this paper seeks to compare the characteristics of respondents and non-respondents and the methodologies to elicit responses from a well-defined undergraduate population at the University of California system.

About seven thousand undergraduates from seven participating University of California campuses were sampled. Electronic invitations were sent to each student to solicit participation in the study. Students were also randomly assigned to three different subgroups, each receiving a different email invitation sequence. The variation was designed to explore which strategy would provide the most effective mean to yield positive responses from students. In addition, a follow-up telephone survey was conducted with a representative sample of non-respondents after the completion of the online survey. The follow-up telephone survey of 216 non-respondents collected detailed information regarding the reasons for their lack of participation as well as selected items from the online survey.

Using information from various sources as described above, the study will: (1) compare the characteristics of respondents and non-respondents to see if response biases exist; (2) compare the response rates from the three groups to see which invitation sequence is the most effective method; and (3) examine whether non-responses may also be conditional on the invitation sequencing. Findings from the study will provide an informed understanding of possible biases in collecting survey data over the internet, even in a well-defined population that has wide electronic access.

2011 - Southern Political Science Association Pages: 1 pages || Words: 248 words || 
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2. Cullison, Courtney. "To Respond or Not to Respond: Approaches to Activated Communications" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Southern Political Science Association, Hotel InterContinental, New Orleans, Louisiana, Jan 05, 2011 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-12-09 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p455746_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Interest groups have played a significant role in policy making in the contemporary Congress. With the rise in activated communications as a lobbying technique, interest groups may now be expanding their influence. This paper examines the reception and treatment of activated communications in congressional offices. Using data from the Congressional Management Foundation the author finds that offices react differently to activated communications. While all offices use these incoming communications as opportunities to build their office database for future promotional mailings, Republican members afford activated communications less influence in their decision making process than do Democratic members.

Republican offices still feel obligated to respond to these activated communications (largely out of fear or electoral retribution), but their responses are sometimes part of a larger party effort to engage in message politics. The party (or a member of the party who is a leader on the issue) provides basic text that can be adapted by each office and pasted into a form response.

Without corresponding data collected during a period of Democratic Party control of Congress, it is difficult to determine if this difference in how the parties respond to activated communications is due to majority status or to some longer standing difference in the way the two parties approach the politics of governing.

2009 - The Law and Society Association Words: 249 words || 
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3. Roberts, Christopher. "Responding to the Written Opinion: How Do Legislators Respond to Opinions of the Supreme Court" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The Law and Society Association, Grand Hyatt, Denver, Colorado, May 25, 2009 <Not Available>. 2019-12-09 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p303784_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Legislators possess a variety of means to formally constrain a court, from curtailing the docket or changing the duties or composition of the jurists to directly reversing the decision either through the passage of a statute or adoption of a constitution amendment. Directly challenging the court is not the only option available to legislators and other political actors. Through ad hominem attacks against the court or the introduction of legislation criticizing the court, political actors may create a political environment hostile to the judiciary (Liptak 2006). Since legislators often respond to the decisions of the court in one form or another (Whittington 1999, 2007; Pickerill 2004), how and the degree to which political actors respond to the court may indicate the willingness to formally constrain or defile the judiciary.
The reactions by other government actors and the subsequent counter-reactions by the judiciary indicate that the existing literature on judicial independence is narrowly conceived. Many theories of judicial independence suggest that autonomy is measured by the degree to which justices are insulated from pressure or undue influence by the other branches of the government (see Epstein et al. 2001; Moustafa 2003). However, studies that measures the institutional arrangements of the court, the decisions of the court, or when the decisions are overturned or ignored face important limitations (Larkins 1996). In this paper, I examine will examine how members of the United States Congress and the Parliament of Canada responded to judicial opinions from their respective Supreme Court during their 2007 term.

2004 - International Studies Association Pages: 50 pages || Words: 13877 words || 
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4. Menz, Georg. "Responding How and Responding to What? Embedding Globalization in the Southern Cone and Northern Europe" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association, Le Centre Sheraton Hotel, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, Mar 17, 2004 <Not Available>. 2019-12-09 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p73470_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: Emerging from the globalization debate, the second wave in comparative political economy literature (Hall and Soskice, Scharpf and Schmidt, Schmidt) has emphasized the resilience of divergent varieties of capitalism in the face of pressures of convergence. This paper contributes to this literature, while critically examining some its assumptions. Taking national response strategies to constitute the dependent variable and the pressures of international competitiveness as the independent variable, three questions are analyzed. First, are the divergent trajectories in macroeconomic policy since the 1970s indeed responses to external pressures? Second, what role does globalization play as compared to the role of foreign influence in the form of policy transfer and the diffusion of ideas through epistemic communities? Third, in assessing such response strategies, is it fruitful to distinguish between models and varieties of capitalism, or are there indications functional convergence on a redefined role of the state, a competition state model? Is the functional output of coordinated capitalist systems thus roughly similar to that of liberal capitalist systems? At the microlevel, this neo-institutionally inspired analysis examines the role of key actors, the institutional configuration of the political system, central politico-economic interest groups, and other civil society actors in the implementation of embedded liberalism. The analysis drawn on evidence from a diverse sample of previously understudied countries, including two countries that have embraced liberal market economics (Chile, New Zealand) and two others that have traditionally been associated with Social Democratic neocorporatist economic governance (Austria and Norway). While much effort has been previously devoted to sketching contours of globalization, relatively scant attention has been paid to such response strategies and the question as to whether some, if not most, of the impetus for change originates domestically, rather than at the global level. The paper addresses this set of issues.

2006 - International Studies Association Pages: 47 pages || Words: 16509 words || 
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5. Menz, Georg. "Responding How and Responding to What? Embedding Globalization in New Zealand and Germany" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association, Town & Country Resort and Convention Center, San Diego, California, USA, Mar 22, 2006 <Not Available>. 2019-12-09 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p99798_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Emerging from the globalization debate, the "second wave" in comparative political economy literature (Hall and Soskice, Scharpf and Schmidt, Schmidt) has emphasized the resilience of divergent varieties of capitalism in the face of pressures of convergence. This paper contributes to this literature, while critically examining some its assumptions. Taking national response strategies to constitute the dependent variable and the pressures of international competitiveness as the independent variable, three questions are analyzed. First, are the divergent trajectories in macroeconomic policy since the 1970s indeed responses to external pressures? Second, what role does "globalization" play as compared to the role of foreign influence in the form of policy transfer and the diffusion of ideas through epistemic communities? Third, in assessing such response strategies, is it fruitful to distinguish between "models" and "varieties" of capitalism, or are there indications of functional convergence on a redefined role of the state, a "competition state model"? Is the functional output of coordinated capitalist systems thus roughly similar to that of liberal capitalist systems? At the microlevel, this neo-institutionally inspired analysis examines the role of key actors, the institutional configuration of the political system, central politico-economic interest groups, and other civil society actors in the implementation of "embedded liberalism". The analysis drawn on evidence from two countries, one which has embraced liberal market economics (New Zealand) and one that is often presented as the epitome of co-ordinated market economies (Germany).While much effort has been previously devoted to sketching contours of globalization, relatively scant attention has been paid to such response strategies and the question as to whether some, if not most, of the impetus for change originates domestically, rather than at the global level. The paper addresses this set of issues.

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