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2007 - Midwest Political Science Association Words: 331 words || 
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1. Davenport, Christian. "Rioting Alone?! Explaining and Interpreting the Harlem Riots of 1935 and the Complexity of Black-Jewish Relations" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association, Palmer House Hotel, Chicago, IL, Apr 12, 2007 <Not Available>. 2020-02-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p198172_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Research on inter-group relations frequently attempts to investigate why a minor event (e.g., an interaction with a law enforcement official, or a small fight) would escalate into a larger conflagration. Much of this work either focuses on macro-level factors that account for the larger context within which these transformations occur or they focus on specific micro-level factors that account for the sequence of relevant events involved with the conflicts themselves. We attempt to add to this literature by investigating some factors that are normally ignored: the overall activity, interests, and institutions of the groups involved outside of the realm of the specific interaction of interest. Simply, we attempt to situate the micro-to-macro transformation into the context of the conflicting groups overall activity repertoire (i.e., all actions taken within as well as outside of the community of interest).
To explore these issues we use event-data collected about a conflict involving American Blacks and Jews that took place in Harlem, New York in March of 1935 (by the city-week). Our study reveals that conflagrations take place within a context where group activity is responding to dynamics within the other community in question. Conflagrations themselves are also shown to have lasting impacts on what conflicting parties do after the events of interest occur. Our study reveals that events-based research into intergroup relations where actors are undergoing radical identity transitions is extremely complex. The study raised numerous questions: e.g., who is Jewish and Black, what counts as an interaction between actors when they do not self identify, what level of interaction is the most salient for gauging levels of conflict and cooperation? Perhaps most important, our study revealed that it is possible for multiple parties involved within a conflict to frame group interactions in a such a way that certain combatants and/or targets of group action are removed from all discussion. This complicates the investigation of intergroup interaction and, indeed, within our search to identify and understand Black-Jewish conflict, it left us with Blacks “rioting” alone.

2018 - American Sociological Association Annual Meeting Pages: unavailable || Words: 11806 words || 
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2. Burke, Jordan. "Riots as Social Control: Disciplinary Riot to Compensatory Rebellion, 1917-1967" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting, Pennsylvania Convention Center & Philadelphia Marriott, Philadelphia, PA, Aug 09, 2018 Online <PDF>. 2020-02-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p1377487_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This paper examines a fifty-year period of collective riot violence in United States history. I use social pattern analysis and identify three types of riot events. The World War I era is scarred by disciplinary riots: white-initiated collective violence intended as punishment for black mobility (downward social control). The Harlem riot of 1935 is evidence of a pivotal shift in the social structure of American riots, the compensatory rebellion: black-initiated collective violence intended as retribution for white injustice (upward social control). The Detroit riot of 1943 provides evidence for a third ideal type, the reciprocal riot: Black-initiated collective violence surges upward against whites, and white-initiated collective violence responds with punishment (bidirectional social control). This new conceptualization captures the social significance of these events more effectively than does the purposefully misleading term race riot. This paper presents several findings: (1) Riots change in social structure due to fluctuations in the cultural, relational, and social distance separating blacks from whites (Black 1976, 1998, 2011). (2) Official intervention (i.e. third parties) directly affects the intensity and severity of riot violence. (3) White violence proves to be instrumental, rewarded both politically and economically, while black violence proves detrimental (and will be punished).

2012 - ASC Annual Meeting Words: 187 words || 
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3. Johnson, Shane. and Baudains, Peter. "Why Did the Riots Occur Here but Not There? A Random Utility Model of the U.K. Riots" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ASC Annual Meeting, Palmer House Hilton, Chicago, IL, <Not Available>. 2020-02-22 <http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p575715_index.html>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Abstract: Taking place predominantly in high population areas the civil unrest that occurred in the UK in August 2011 spread across the country, but exhibited strong spatial and temporal clustering. Analyses of this kind of phenomena typically explore the types of areas in which events occurred, or the kinds of areas in which those involved reside, but do not consider the interaction between the two. Using a Random Utility Model framework, in this paper we examine explanations as to why the riots occurred where they did and not at other similar locations by simultaneously taking account of where events occurred and where the offenders came from. We use data for crimes associated with the London riots, and a fixed effects conditional logit model to test hypotheses. We examine the role of propinquity, and factors measured at the area level, such as deprivation, population mobility, accessibility and the number of retail centres in a destination on offender spatial decision making. Other influences to be discussed include the effects of contagion-like processes on the timing and location of events. Theoretical and policy implications will be discussed.

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