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2013 - Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication Pages: unavailable || Words: 7602 words || 
1. Brown, Carolyn. and Chin Roemer, Robin. "Television News Reporting in Salinas, California: Defining and Informing a Latino Community with Excessive Crime News Coverage" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication, Renaissance Hotel, Washington DC, Aug 08, 2013 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2019-08-20 <>
Publication Type: Conference Paper/Unpublished Manuscript
Review Method: Peer Reviewed
Abstract: This study uses cultivation theory to examine how local television news connected Latino identity and violence during a two-month span in 2012, in Salinas, California. Salinas is a predominately Latino community with a significant immigrant population and a reputation for gang violence. Findings indicate a substantial focus on crime news stories and a disproportionate identification of Latinos as perpetrators of crime compared to the identification of Latinos as victims of crime.

2010 - American Studies Association Annual Meeting Words: 484 words || 
2. Flores, Lori. "Bound in Tension: Mexican American-Mexican Relationships in California’s Salinas Valley, 1942-1964" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Studies Association Annual Meeting, Grand Hyatt, San Antonio, TX, <Not Available>. 2019-08-20 <>
Publication Type: Internal Paper
Abstract: Although small in population, the town of Salinas was one of the biggest agricultural centers of California, the U.S., and the world by the 1950s. Throughout this decade, Salinas Valley growers imported large numbers of braceros, or male Mexican guestworkers, to work in the region’s fields. This paper examines the complicated relationships between braceros, Mexican Americans, and undocumented Mexican migrants in Salinas to say more about intraethnic conflict, cooperation, and notions of “family” in California’s agricultural spaces during the “bracero” and “wetback” eras.
Isolated in camps outside Salinas, braceros were limited in their interactions with local residents, including Mexican Americans. Tension between the two groups escalated as growers replaced Mexican American fieldworkers with cheap bracero labor. Despite this distance and competition, early 1950s incidents of discrimination brought the two groups together. Ostracized from the town’s white Catholic Church, Mexican Americans and braceros built their own church in a display of cooperation that was significant but short-lived. As Salinas growers requested one of the highest numbers of braceros in California in the mid-1950s and "Operation Wetback" targeted Salinas as a prime destination for undocumented Mexican migrants, tensions reemerged along nationality and class lines. Then, when Salinas growers imported a peak number of braceros in 1956 and proposed building additional bracero camps within city limits, white Salinas residents objected to braceros as a sexual and moral threat and thus a gendered “social problem.” While some Mexican Americans took offense as co-ethnics subject to similar discrimination, others joined the anti-bracero camp faction to agitate for their own interests and distance themselves from Mexican nationals. With their U.S. citizenship, a more respectable family-oriented image, and less threatening racialized identity, some Mexican Americans in Salinas allowed their differences with braceros and “wetbacks” to override ethnic ties.
In the fields, complicated relationships persisted between Mexican Americans and Mexican nationals. Resenting them as labor competition but sympathizing with their exploitation, some Mexican American farmworkers created “family” with Mexicans in ways including intermarriage. Using one couple’s story and local marriage records, this paper examines how romantic relationships bound up the lives of U.S.-born and immigrant Mexicans and impacted community views of the Bracero Program at large. When a horrific bus-train accident that killed 32 Salinas braceros in 1963 helped precipitate Congress’s termination of the Program in 1964, Salinas and California growers continued importing braceros and denying local residents work. Infuriated, working-class Mexican Americans in Salinas began agitating for their own civil and labor rights through public protests, lawsuits, and joining labor unions. The end of the Bracero Program had provided a new opportunity for activism, demonstrating how the worlds of braceros and Mexican Americans continued to be chained together in death as well as life. In its attention to an agricultural California locale and the use of class, gender, and family as lenses of analysis, this paper illuminates the complexities of Mexican American-Mexican relations in an understudied place in Latino and California history.

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